Plant of the Week
Macfarlane's four-o-clock (Mirabilis macfarlanei Constance & Rollins)
By Russell Holmes
Macfarlane's four-o-clock is a member of the Nyctaginaceae (Four-o-clock family) which contains approximately 300 species worldwide occurring mostly in tropical and subtropical regions. There are 88 species recorded in North America. A few species in the family are popular ornamentals. Other species are sources of compounds that have medicinal value. Macfarlane's four-o-clock is a federally threatened species endemic to northeast Oregon and Northern Idaho. Seeds of the species have been collected and placed in long-term storage in the Center for Plant Conservation national collection of endangered plants as a conservation measure.
Macfarlane's four-o-clock is a stout perennial forming large clumps 6 to 8 dm (24 to 32 inches) in diameter and 6 to 10 dm (24 to 40 inches) tall. Stems are decumbent or ascending, branched and covered with short, fine hairs. Leaves are opposite with circular to ovate fleshy blades 4 to 7 cm (1.6 to 2.8 inches) long and petioles 5 to 20 mm (0.2 to 0.5 inches) long. Flower clusters form in the upper axils or on terminal stalks. Flowers are rose-purple and broadly funnel form. Stamens exceed the perianth segments and support yellow anthers. Plants bloom in May.
Macfarlane's four-o-clock grows on rockslides, canyon walls, and sandy to gravelly talus slopes. Elevation ranges from 300 to 900 m (980 to 2050 feet) Associated species include beardless bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), cheatgrass brome (Bromus tectorum), Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis), and sweet clover (Melilotus).
For More Information
- PLANTS Profile - Mirabilis macfarlanei, Macfarlane's four-o-clock
- Threatened, Endangered, and Proposed (TEP) Plant Profile: Mirabilis macfarlanei, MacFarlane’s four-o’clock
- Ongoing Efforts to Recover Mirabilis macfarlanei, MacFarlane’s Four-O’clock
- Hawk Moths or Sphinx Moths (Sphingidae)