Progressive expansion of invasive annual grasses and larger and more severe fires in sagebrush ecosystems underscore the importance of vegetation management treatments that can reverse these trends. In sagebrush ecosystems, vegetation treatments focus on reducing woody species (shrubs and grasses) to reduce fuel loads, and thus fire severity and extent, and on post-fire rehabilitation. Overarching management objectives are restoring and maintaining ecosystem services such as clean air and water by (1) increasing resilience to disturbance or recovery potential, and (2) decreasing the longer term risk of conversion to invasive annual grasses and an annual/grass fire cycle.
Resilience science has been used to develop management guides for selecting appropriate treatment and restoration strategies for sagebrush and piñon-juniper ecosystems. The guides provide a framework with six key components for rapidly evaluating resilience to disturbance, resistance to invasive annual grasses, and plant community succession following wildfires and management treatments. The key components are:
Ecological characteristics of the site;
Vegetation composition and structure prior to treatment;
Severity of the disturbance or treatment;
Post-treatment management, especially grazing; and
Monitoring and adaptive management.
Several tools are provided to aid in determining the most appropriate treatment. These tools include:
A conceptual model of the relationships between the key components and their effects on resilience and resistance,
Guides to evaluate disturbance and treatment severity, and
Aids for determining plant composition and structure after wildfires.
Importantly, evaluation score sheets are provided for rating resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses, and for evaluating the probability of treatment success. The approach is being widely adapted by managers seeking to increase treatment effectiveness.
This research provides:
Information and criteria for evaluating resilience (recovery potential) following wildfire and management treatments in sagebrush ecosystems;
Information and criteria for evaluating resistance to invasive annual grasses; and
Score sheets for determining the suitability of areas for treatment and the need for post-fire or post-treating rehabilitation seeding.