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Hydrology, watersheds, sedimentation


Population growth and climate change will combine to pose substantial challenges for water management in the United States. Projections of water supply and demand over the 21st century show that in the absence of further adaptation efforts, serious water shortages are likely in some regions. Continued improvements in water use efficiency are likely but will be insufficient to avoid future shortages.
We conducted this assessment to provide information on the current conditions of riparian and wetland ecosystems in reference to their natural range of variability on the Manti-La Sal National Forest during forest plan revision.
Pedogenic processes imprint their signature on soils over the course of thousands to millions of years in most soil systems. Variation in soil forming processes - such as parent material weathering, organic material additions, hydrologic processes, and atmospheric additions - account for the distribution and sourcing of cations in ecosystems, and hence exert a strong influence on ecosystem productivity.
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) exist commonly on soil surfaces in many arid and semiarid areas, and disturbed soil surfaces in more mesic environments. BSCs perform many essential ecological functions. Substantial resources have been invested trying to restore or replace BSCs that have been damaged by anthropogenic disturbances, with various levels of success.
Conifers in the Pinaceae and Cupressaceae from dry environments have been shown to broadly differ in their stomatal sensitivity to soil drying that result in isohydric versus anisohydric water use behavior, respectively.
This paper evaluates the potential effects of future commercial shipping through the Northern Sea Route and Northwest Passage on the spread of nonindigenous species (NIS) between Europe, the United States, and the Asia-Pacific region. We modeled NIS spread risk as a function of two factors: NIS introduction and NIS establishment.
Water crises - defined as significant declines in water quality and quantity - top the global risks list compiled by the World Economic Forum (2015) that have the greatest potential impacts on society. Vegetation fires are amongst the most hydrologically significant landscape disturbances (Ebel & Mirus, 2014) and affect ~4% of the global vegetated land surface annually (Giglio, Randerson, & van der Werf, 2013).
Vulnerability assessments are important tools to assist in climate adaptation planning. Six priority ecosystems were identified in the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region: alpine turf and dwarf-shrubland; aquatic, riparian, and wetland ecosystems in glaciated valleys; subalpine spruce-fir; low-gradient mountain stream reaches; ponderosa pine; and Great Plains streams and riparian areas.
High-quality information is needed for conservation and management of aquatic resources on lands administered by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS). Information is ultimately derived from data, so the USFS maintains a series of databases that are used to describe the status and trends of aquatic habitats and biota.
Western United States wildfire increases have been generally attributed to warming temperatures, either through effects on winter snowpack or summer evaporation. However, near-surface air temperature and evaporative demand are strongly influenced by moisture availability and these interactions and their role in regulating fire activity have never been fully explored.