Population growth and climate change will combine to pose substantial challenges for water management in the United States. Projections of water supply and demand over the 21st century show that in the absence of further adaptation efforts, serious water shortages are likely in some regions. Continued improvements in water use efficiency are likely but will be insufficient to avoid future shortages.
Sublimation is an important hydrological flux in cold, snow‐dominated ecosystems. In high‐elevation spruce‐fir forests of western North America, spruce beetle outbreaks have killed trees, reduced the canopy, and altered processes that control sublimation.
The Chilean summer of 2017 was the worst wildfire season by far. Hundreds of wildfires burned a total of more than half a million hectares of forested land (native forests and forest plantations). A significant portion of the burned area was occupied by Hualo (Nothofagus glauca (Phil.) Krasser), a native forest species widely distributed in central Chile.
Humans live in or adjacent to wildland ecosystems that burn periodically and are part of nearly all ecosystems that are in the pyrosphere. There are many hazards posed by wildfire and certain consequences of living in these ecosystems. Most are associated with wildfire, but the increased use of prescribed fire is an issue because of associated risks with human attempts to manage ecological goals.
We conducted this assessment to provide information on the current conditions of riparian and wetland ecosystems in reference to their natural range of variability on the Manti-La Sal National Forest during forest plan revision.
This assessment was conducted to provide information on the current conditions of riparian, wetland, and groundwater-dependent ecosystems in reference to their natural range of variation on the Salmon-Challis National Forest during forest plan revision.
Pedogenic processes imprint their signature on soils over the course of thousands to millions of years in most soil systems. Variation in soil forming processes - such as parent material weathering, organic material additions, hydrologic processes, and atmospheric additions - account for the distribution and sourcing of cations in ecosystems, and hence exert a strong influence on ecosystem productivity.
Large, high-severity wildfires alter the physical and biological conditions that determine how catchments retain and release nutrients and regulate streamwater quality. The short-term water quality impacts of severe wildfire are often dramatic, but the longer-term responses may better reflect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem recovery.
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) exist commonly on soil surfaces in many arid and semiarid areas, and disturbed soil surfaces in more mesic environments. BSCs perform many essential ecological functions. Substantial resources have been invested trying to restore or replace BSCs that have been damaged by anthropogenic disturbances, with various levels of success.
Conifers in the Pinaceae and Cupressaceae from dry environments have been shown to broadly differ in their stomatal sensitivity to soil drying that result in isohydric versus anisohydric water use behavior, respectively.