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Geology

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Forest conservationists need a method to conserve the maximum amount of biological diversity while allowing species and communities to rearrange in response to a continually changing climate. Here, we develop such an approach for northeastern North America. First we characterize and categorize forest blocks based on their geology, landforms, and elevation zones.
Beginning in 2007 in and around the Huachuca Mountains, the Coronado National Forest and other partners have been mapping ecosystems at multiple scales. The approach has focused on identifying land type associations (LTA), which represent the sum of bedrock and superficial geology, topography, elevation, potential and existing vegetation, soil properties, and local climatic variables.
Soils are the fundamental resource enabling land to provide a wide array of benefits. Both humans and wildlife rely on soils for the production of life-sustaining nourishment and shelter.
Biomass harvesting for energy production and forest health can impact the soil resource by altering inherent chemical, physical and biological properties. These impacts raise concern about damaging sensitive forest soils, even with the prospect of maintaining vigorous forest growth through biomass harvesting operations.
The El Toro Wilderness, designated by Congress in 2005, occupies about 36 percent of the 11,300 ha Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) in northeastern Puerto Rico. It is the only tropical forest in the wilderness system managed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
This field trip guide was created for a September 18th, 2011, field trip to the 2010 Schultz Fire burn area northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, as part of the Arizona Hydrological Society's Annual Symposium. The guide provides background information on the 2010 Schultz Fire and aftermath (Section 1), site-specific information for each stop on the field trip (Section 2), and a discussion of issues of wildfires in municipal watersheds (Section 3).
We characterized the water chemistry of nine slope wetlands and adjacent headwater streams in Colorado subalpine forests and compared sites in basins formed on crystalline bedrock with those formed in basins with a mixture of crystalline and sedimentary bedrock. The pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4 +, acid neutralizing capacity, and electrical conductivity of wetland porewater and streamwater were higher in the basins with mixed geology.
Watershed (drainage basin) morphometry and geology were derived from digital data sets (DEMs and geologic maps). Riparian corridors were classified into five vegetation types (riparian forest, riparian shrub, wet/mesic meadow, dry meadow and shrub dry meadow) using high-resolution aerial photography. Regression and multivariate analyses were used to relate geomorphic characteristics to riparian vegetation extent and composition.
Recent reports of rapid die-off of aspen (Populus tremuloides), coupled with vigorous debate over longterm reduction of aspen cover in western North America, has prompted considerable research given the importance of this forest type for economic and non-economic interests.
Since 2004, the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico has hosted extensive field hydrology research by scientists from the Center for Sustainability of semi- Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas (SAHRA) at the University of Arizona.

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