Fifty years ago, riparian habitats were not recognized for their extensive and critical contributions to wildlife and the ecosystem function of watersheds. This changed as riparian values were identified and documented, and the science of riparian ecology developed steadily. Papers in this volume range from the more mesic northwestern United States to the arid Southwest and Mexico.
The Intermountain Adaptation Partnership (IAP) region encompasses a high diversity of grassland, shrubland, and forest habitats across a broad range of elevational gradients, supporting high biodiversity in the interior western United States. Terrestrial species comprise a wide range of life forms, each expressing varying levels of habitat specialization and life history traits.
Historical forests in the Southeastern Mixed Forest province of the United States have been less researched than other regions using historical tree surveys. We used 81,000 tree records from surveys during the 1800s to quantify composition of this ecological province. Upland oaks and pines comprised about 75% of all trees, with relatively equal composition.
Study of all flies (Diptera) collected for one year from a four-hectare (150 x 266 meter) patch of cloud forest at 1,600 meters above sea level at Zurquí de Moravia, San José Province, Costa Rica (hereafter referred to as Zurquí), revealed an astounding 4,332 species. This amounts to more than half the number of named species of flies for all of Central America.
The purposeful use of any silvicultural method, including mechanical methods, managed wildfire, prescribed fire, or a combination of approaches, to intentionally alter the fuel complex in such a way as to modify fire behavior and thereby minimize the potential negative impacts of future wildfires on ecosystem goods and services, cultural resources, and human communities.
Naturally occurring genetic diversity is the material upon which much of the biodiversity we attribute to forested ecosystems is based. The structuring of genetic diversity within natural populations of forest trees results from the interplay of numerous evolutionary forces, such as genetic drift, migration, and natural selection.
The health and regeneration of sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana), a major species in the mountain forests of California (USA), has been substantially affected by an exotic pathogen, Cronartium ribicola, which causes white pine blister rust. Seedlings from trees with major gene resistance (MGR) are being used to increase field survival in plantations.
The Little Missouri National Grassland is the largest designated National Grassland in the United States and represents one of the best examples of intact native mixed-grass prairie in the United States. The Little Missouri National Grasslands occurs entirely within the Williston Basin, which has been a leading source of conventional oil and gas production since the 1950s.
Land managers have commonly sought to discourage or prohibit camping near surface waters (e.g., lakes, rivers, streams, and springs), imposing regulations that prohibit camping within a specified distance from water.
Forest managers use mastication to grind or shed vegetation to remove competition, prepare a site for natural or artificial regeneration, or release sapling-sized trees; or they use mastication to convert ladder fuels to surface fuels and enhance decomposition of biomass. However, determining the best mastication configuration within the context of management objectives and site limitations is challenging.