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Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) is an aggressive bark beetle that attacks numerous Pinus spp. and causes extensive mortality in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon; LPP) forests in the western United States and Canada.
The major emphasis of this chapter is to address the species richness and population densities of land vertebrates in riparian mesquite bosques (woodlands). We find no single publication that lists vertebrates - amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals - of riparian mesquites of the Southwest lowlands. These vertebrates are listed for a few river valleys, such as the Santa Cruz River (Webb et al.
Once a mighty and wild river with abundant wetlands, the section of the Colorado River flowing through Mexico has become a trickle ... whenever it flows. Most of the time since the 1960s, until recently, it did not and was completely dry. This brought tremendous changes in the "original" constitution and biological processes of the region, although they have not been fully investigated.
Much of what we know about the functional ecology of aquatic and riparian ecosystems comes from work on regulated rivers (Johnson et al. 2012). What little we know about unregulated conditions on many of our larger rivers is often inferred from recollections of individuals, personal diaries, notes, maps, and collections from early scientific surveys (Webb et al. 2007) and from repeat photography (Turner and Karpiscak 1980; Webb 1996).
Prior to human development in the West, rivers flowed freely. Flows in the Colorado River varied greatly with season, with snowmelt runoff from the Rocky Mountains resulting in annual high flows (Topping et al. 2003). The large sediment loads historically found in the Colorado River, estimated to average 160,000,000 tons passing Yuma annually (LaRue 1916), have since caused Laguna Dam (fig.
Euro-American (EA) beaver trapping was a regional and watershed-scale disturbance that occurred across the North American continent. This concentrated removal of beavers altered drainages by creating thousands of localized base-level drops as beaver dams failed and were not repaired.
Riparian ecosystems provide the anchor for their associated aquatic habitats and the structure for a unique assemblage of life found in these exceptionally productive ecosystems. Much of upland life also is tied to this zone, particularly in arid regions. For instance, on National Forest lands in the Southwest Region, 57 percent of all vertebrates occur in riparian ecosystems, but these systems make up
It is well known that nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix parviflora, T. ramosissima, T. chinensis, and their hybrids; a.k.a. saltcedar) has replaced native riparian woodland vegetation along many streams in the arid Southwest over the last 100 years. Tamarisk can form extensive, dense monocultures and may alter not only the physical structure of the riparian woodland but also soil salinity and fire frequency (Sher 2013).
Scientists, land managers, government, and private institutions in the United States have given much attention to invasive control and restoration projects along western rivers; in the West, removal of Tamarix spp. (tamarisk, saltcedar) has been a primary focus of these projects (Dennison et al. 2009; González et al. 2017a; Harms and Hiebert 2006; Shafroth et al. 2008).
Changes in human populations, water use, climate, and related disturbances are impacting riparian ecosystems throughout the western United States. Nowhere is this more pronounced than in the arid American Southwest (Gutzler 2013; Molles et al. 1998; Webb et al. 2007).