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Willow establishment in relation to cattle grazing on an eastern Oregon stream

Posted date: August 03, 2010
Publication Year: 
1996
Authors: Shaw, Nancy L.; Clary, Warren P.
Publication Series: 
General Technical Report (GTR)
Source: In: Shaw, Douglas W.; Finch, Deborah M., tech coords. Desired future conditions for Southwestern riparian ecosystems: Bringing interests and concerns together. 1995 Sept. 18-22, 1995; Albuquerque, NM. General Technical Report RM-GTR-272. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. p. 148-153.
Note: This article is part of a larger document.

Abstract

Natural regeneration and growth of coyote willow (Salix exigua Nutt. ssp. exigua) and whiplash willow (S. lasiandra Bemth. var. caudata [Nutt.] Sudw.) were monitored from 1987 to 1993 on a low-elevation eastern Oregon stream degraded by more than a century of heavy livestock grazing. Treatments were no grazing, moderate spring grazing, moderate fall grazing, and continued heavy, season-long grazing by cattle. Fresh sediments deposited by a May 1987 flood provided moist, open seedbed conditions for willow recruitment from off-site seed sources. Initial establishment of coyote willow was limited, but density increased through 1990 with some fluctuation thereafter. Over the 7-year period, density was greatest in pastures grazed moderately in spring and least in pastures grazed moderately in fall or heavily season long. By contrast, large numbers of whiplash willows established in 1987, but densities declined through 1990 and remained stable thereafter. Densities were greater in ungrazed or moderately grazed pastures compared to those grazed season long. Height of both willow species generally increased over time in all pastures and was greater in ungrazed and moderately grazed pastures compared to those grazed season long. Browsing by deer each summer substantially reduced willow growth in all pastures possibly masking treatment differences. Few willows have grown beyond browsing height to increase site stability and begin providing on-site seed sources.

Citation

Shaw, Nancy L.; Clary, Warren P. 1996. Willow establishment in relation to cattle grazing on an eastern Oregon stream. In: Shaw, Douglas W.; Finch, Deborah M., tech coords. Desired future conditions for Southwestern riparian ecosystems: Bringing interests and concerns together. 1995 Sept. 18-22, 1995; Albuquerque, NM. General Technical Report RM-GTR-272. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. p. 148-153.