White pine blister rust (caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola) reached northern California about 80 years ago. Over the years its spread southward had been primarily recorded on sugar pine. However, observations on its occurrence had also been reported in several of the higher elevation five-needled white pine species in California. Since the late 1990s, field surveys have substantiated that rust is present in several of these higher elevation species. The combined results of three local surveys in the Sierra Nevada and Warner mountains documented the occurrence of rust in western white and whitebark pines, but not in southern Sierra foxtail or limber pine. A 2004-2006 Statewide survey, funded by the USDA Forest Service (USDA-FS) Forest Health Monitoring Program, showed that the incidence of rust varied considerably within and between regions.