At the 2005 Biennial George Wright Society Conference on Parks, Protected Areas, and Cultural Sites in Philadelphia, March 14 to 18, there were many sessions relevant to wilderness. One session provided focus on a priority research area of the Leopold Institute: understanding the effects of management actions on relationships between people and wilderness. A great majority of wilderness social science has historically focused on understanding recreation visitors’ responses to on-site conditions encountered during wilderness visits. These responses are often at the core of Limits of Acceptable Change and other indicatorbased planning models used to select indicators, establish standards, and monitor conditions in wilderness. A new line of research at the Leopold Institute, strongly illustrated by several examples in Alaska, demonstrates the need to understand how these on-site management actions influence the range of relationships people have with wilderness.