First decade findings on the impacts of organic matter removal and soil compaction are reported for the 26 oldest installations in the nation-wide network of long-term soil productivity sites. Complete removal of surface organic matter led to declines in soil C concentration to 20 cm depth and to reduced nutrient availability. The effect is attributed mainly to the loss of the forest floor. Soil C storage seemed undiminished, but could be explained by bulk density changes following disturbance and to decomposition inputs of organic C from roots remaining from the harvested forest. Biomass removal during harvesting had no influence on forest growth through 10 years. Soil compaction effects depended upon initial bulk density. Soils with densities greater than 1.4 Mg m-3 resisted compaction. Density recovery was slow, particularly on soils with frigid temperature regimes. Forest productivity response to soil compaction depended both on soil texture and the degree of understory competition. Production declined on compacted clay soils, increased on sands, and generally was unaffected if an understory was absent.