Mindful organizing has been proposed as an adaptive form for unpredictable, unknowable environments. Mindfulness induces a rich awareness of details and facilitates the discovery and correction of ill-structured contingencies so that adaptations can be made as action unfolds. Although these ideas are appealing, empirical studies examining mindfulness and its effects are limited. This study aims at remedying this situation. We use qualitative and quantitative data gathered from wildland firefighters to empirically examine the extent to which mindful organizing contributes to adaptive performance in these dynamic contexts. The findings appear to support the hypotheses: mindfulness is particularly important for good outcomes when contextual uncertainty is high. We end by examining some theoretical mechanisms through which mindfulness is generated.