A study of commercial timber-harvesting activities in Montana was conducted during 2011 to 2016 to estimate growing-stock removals, characterize current tree utilization and logging operations, and assist with estimating the amount of woody biomass left onsite after harvesting. Sample logging sites were selected within major geographic regions proportional to 5-year timber harvest volumes. A two-stage sampling method was used to compute State-level logging utilization factors. Results of the study indicated that in Montana, for every 1,000 cubic feet (CF) delivered to the mill, harvesting removed 1,009 CF of timber volume from growing stock, created 30 CF of growing-stock logging residue, and sent 21 CF of non-growing-stock material to the mill. Logging site-level growing-stock logging residue production was predicted to decrease 65 percent when pulp products were harvested. Study results can inform land managers of residues available for biomass/bioenergy uses, provide data for life cycle analyses, and estimate removals from growing stock.