Landscape genetics is the amalgamation of population genetics and landscape ecology (see Manel et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2007). In Chapter 17, we discuss landscape genetics and provide two examples of applications in the area of modeling population connectivity and inferring fragmentation. These examples, like virtually all extant landscape genetic analyses, were based on evaluating spatial genetic patterns using a relatively small number of selectively neutral (or nearly neutral) markers. Landscape genomics, on the other hand, is the simultaneous study of tens-to-hundreds of markers, ideally including markers in candidate adaptive genes (genes under selection), with georeferenced samples collected across a landscape. While landscape genomics is, in one sense, simply landscape genetics with lots of data (thus reduced variance and increased precision), the qualitatively different (adaptive, potentially non-independent) nature and analytical approaches associated with these data are different enough to produce a profoundly different field.