Invasive pathogens have caused immeasurable ecological and economic damage to forest ecosystems. Damage will undoubtedly increase over time due to increased introductions and evolution of invasive pathogens in concert with complex environmental disturbances, such as climate change. Forest Service Research and Development must fulfill critical roles and responsibilities to address issues related to invasive forest pathogens. This paper identifies critical, long-term research needs in four key areas: (1) prediction and prevention, (2) early detection and rapid response, (3) management and mitigation, and (4) restoration and rehabilitation. The paper also addresses issues related to national and international collaboration, scientific applications, and communication.