In northern Rocky Mountain moist forests, riparian systems contain many attributes that create unique biophysical conditions that alter disturbances and microenvironments; thus creating distinct forest structures, species composition, and management challenges. For example, browsing, limited opening size, competition from surrounding ground vegetation, high soil moisture, and cold air drainage challenge the application of any silvicultural method, but if these aspects are considered prior to applying restoration efforts, they can also facilitate a successful result. This paper discusses a series of silvicultural tools that can be used in riparian restoration, including integrating knowledge on competitive thresholds for western white pine (Pinus monticola) (occupancy, competitive advantage, and free-to-grow status), maintaining overstory canopy for modifying cold air drainage, and using coarse woody debris and other vegetation to decrease browsing damage while minimizing sedimentation input and soil compaction. Although applying an integrated silvicultural system is critical in any restoration project, non-technical expertise concentrating on the interactions among people during project implementation is needed to achieve successful restoration results. 1997).
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