In this chapter, we focus on the ecosystem services provided to people who visit, live adjacent to, or otherwise benefit from natural resources on public lands. Communities in the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USFS) Northern Region and the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA), hereafter called the Northern Rockies region, are highly dependent on ecosystem services from water, soil, and air that will be affected by climate change in a variety of ways. Every community in the region will feel these impacts. We link biophysical effects associated with climate change, as described in previous chapters, with potential effects on the well-being of humans and communities, and identify strategies for adapting to climate-induced changes and prioritizing among competing interests. First, we introduce ecosystem services and how to describe and measure them. Second, we describe how people and communities currently use and benefit from public lands in the Northern Rockies region, as well as existing stressors that may affect the ability of communities to adapt to a changing climate. Third, we discuss climate change effects on specific ecosystem services. Finally, we identify adaptation strategies that can help reduce negative effects on ecosystem services, and discuss the ability of public agencies and communities to respond to climate change (adaptive capacity).