Woody biomass has the potential to be utilized at an alternative fuel source through its pyrolytic conversion. Here, fast pyrolysis bio-oils derived from several western USA woody species are characterized by negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) to determine molecular-level composition. The composition and properties (pH, electrical conductivity, and elemental analyses) of the biochar byproduct were also determined. The bio-oils are comprised mainly of Ox species. Oak (Quercus garryana Douglas ex Hook), mixed conifer (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco, Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg, Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.), and scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link) bio-oils contain lower Ox (O1-O7) species that exhibit bimodal distributions whereas mixed conifer feedstock from a fire salvage harvest contains a larger range of Ox species (O2-O13) that exhibit a mainly monomodal distribution. Boron-containing species in the pyrolysis oils were also identified for the first time by FT-ICR MS. Biochar analysis revealed that all biochars had similar pH values (~7-8); however, the electrical conductivity and elemental analyses varied across the samples. Understanding the composition of pyrolysis byproducts will help direct their uses to the most appropriate locations.