Science is an appropriate and necessary use of wilderness. The long-term protection of wilderness, including decisions related to the planning and management of wilderness resources, use and values, requires an understanding often available only through scientific investigation. In addition, wilderness provides opportunities for scientific understanding not available in other, less protected areas. Yet the acquisition of scientific information often requires activities that affect wilderness resources and values. Decisions about what scientific activities are appropriate and necessary in wilderness require consideration of apparently conflicting mandates, as well as the balancing of the benefits and impacts of proposed actions. Improved communication and cooperation between wilderness managers and scientists is necessary to assure the best possible science with the minimum possible impact.