The Native Plant Materials Development Program was authorized by the U.S. Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of FY2001 to provide support for development of native plant materials required for restoration of disturbed public lands in the U.S.A. The Washington, DC, Office of the USDI Bureau of Land Management has provided national leadership for this program by developing partnerships with more than 250 public and private entities, a national program for collecting germplasm for ex situ conservation and for seed increase for restoration uses, and by initiating state and regional level native plant materials programs. Regional programs such as the Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project aim to fulfill long-term plant material needs by providing genetically diverse, regionally appropriate seed sources and fostering the research required to produce seeds of new restoration species in agricultural settings. The Deschutes Basin Native Plant Seedbank, a non-profit organization, has provided valuable leadership by functioning as a buyer's cooperatives to provide affordable local seed for public and private partners in areas with a mosaic of land ownerships. At all levels, native plant materials development programs rely heavily upon cooperation among land managers, researchers, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector seed industry.