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Samuel A. Cushman

Research Ecologist

Research Ecologist

Address: 
2500 S. Pine Knoll Dr.
Flagstaff, AZ 86001
Phone: 
928-556-2177
Fax: 
928-556-2130
Contact Samuel A. Cushman

Current Research

My current research studies include developing statistics and software for landscape pattern analysis, vegetation distribution, growth, regeneration along biophysical gradients and effects of management, fire and climate regimes on vegetation pattern and process at landscape levels. My other research projects include effective multi-resource monitoring, multi-scale wildlife habitat relationships modeling and new approaches to model habitat connectivity

Research Interests

Landscape ecology, landscape genetics, forest ecology, climate change, wildlife ecology, disturbance ecology, population biology, landscape dynamic simulation modeling, landscape pattern analysis.

Past Research

Landscape ecology, landscape genetics, forest ecology, climate change, wildlife ecology, disturbance ecology, population biology, landscape dynamic simulation modeling, landscape pattern analysis.

Pre Forest Service

  • Grand, J. and S.A. Cushman. 2003. A multi-scale analysis of species-environment relationships: breeding birds in a pitch pine-scrub oak (Pinus rigida-Quercus ilicifolia) community. Biological Conservation. 112(3): 307-317.
  • McGarigal, K. and S.A. Cushman. 2002. Comparative evaluation of experimental approaches to the study of habitat fragmentation effects. Ecological Applications 12(2): 335-345.
  • Cushman, S.A. and K. McGarigal. 2002. Hierarchical, multi-scale decomposition of species environment relationships. Landscape Ecology. 17:637-646.
  • Cushman, S.A. and D.O. Wallin. 2000. Rates and patterns of landscape change in the Sikhote-alin Mountains, Russian Far East. Landscape Ecology 15(7): 643-659.

Why This Research is Important

The value of a landscape perspective is now widely recognized in the resource management community. This perspective offers a useful framework for considering many resource management issues that often are in conflict. The integration of these multiple resources and management objectives in a rigorous and coherent manner is fundamentally a landscape ecology problem. There is a need for advanced research and management applications in landscape ecology in the Rocky Mountain region. Local management decisions should be guided by the broader ecological and social contexts in which the project exists. Climate change, fire, invasive species, insect and disease outbreaks, managing endangered species and human-environment interactions are examples of resource management issues that can benefit from applying the science of landscape ecology.

Education

  • University of Massachusetts, Ph.D., Landscape Ecology, 2003
  • Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA, M.S., Landscape Ecology, 1997
  • Evergreen State College, Olympia, WA, B.S., Landscape Ecology, 1995
  • Professional Experience

    Director, Center for Landscape Science, RMRS - Forest and Woodland Ecosystems, Flagstaff, AZ
    2011 to present

    Affiliate Faculty, Oregon State University, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife
    2010 to present

    Adjunct Professor, Northern Arizona University, School of Forestry
    2009 to present

    Research Landscape Ecologist, RMRS - Forest and Woodland Ecosystems, Flagstaff, AZ
    2009 to present

    Adjunct Professor, University of Idaho, Department of Entomology
    2009 to present

    Adjunct Professor, Baylor University, Department of Biology
    2008 to present

    Affiliate Faculty, University of Montana, College of Forestry
    2003 to present

    Research Landscape Ecologist, RMRS - Forest and Woodland Ecosystems, Missoula, MT
    2006 to 2009

    Wildlife Biologist, RMRS - 4201, Missoula, MT
    2003 to 2006

    Graduate School Fellow, University of Massachusetts
    2002 to 2003

    GAANN OEB Fellow, University of Massachusetts
    1998 to 2003

    Ecologist, Michael P. Williams Consulting Inc. Seattle, WA
    1997 to 1998

    Graduate Research Assistant, Western Washington University
    1996 to 1997

    Graduate Teaching Assistant, Western Washington University
    1996

    Biologist 1, Washington State Department of Wildlife, Ephrata, WA
    1991 to 1992

    Professional Organizations

    • The Journal Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, Specialty Chief Editor ( 2013 to present )
      Chief editor in charge of an editorial board of over 100 members and is responsible for overall management of the specialty section in evolutionary and population genetics of the Frontiers journals. In this capacity, he selects and recruits editorial board members, provides training and guidance to improve the performance of the editorial board, sets the overall scope and mission for the specialty section, reviews and approves proposals for special topics for the journal, handles disputes in the editorial process and generally oversees the management of the specialty section.
    • The Journal Biodiversity and Conservation, Associate Editor ( 2012 to present )
      Handling topics related to corridors and population connectivity, landscape genetics, habitat fragmentation. In his role as subject editor, the scientist hangles approximately 12 manuscripts each year.
    • The Journal Biodiversity and Conservation, Associate Editor ( 2012 to present )
      Handling topics related to corridors and population connectivity, landscape genetics, habitat fragmentation. In his role as subject editor, the scientist handles approximately 12 manuscripts each year.
    • The Journal Landscape Ecology, Associate Editor ( 2012 to present )
      Responsible for the section "landscape ecology in review" which contains papers on a wide range of landscape ecology topics. The scientist is responsible for soliciting submissions for this section, assigning handling editors and guiding review and revision and making final recommendation to the editor in chief. In his role as Associate Editor, the scientist handles approzimately 24 manuscripts each year.
    • The Journal Landscape Ecology, Editorial Board Member ( 2012 to present )
      Handling topics related to landscape pattern analysis, landscape genetics, and climate-vegetation dynamics. In his role as subject editor, the scientist handles approximately 12 manuscripts each year.
    • The Journal Landscape Ecology, Associate Editor ( 2012 to present )
      Responsible for the section "landscape ecology in review" which contains papers on a wide range of landscape ecology topics. The scientist is responsible for soliciting submissions for this section, assigning handling editors and guiding review and revision and making final recommendation to the editor in chief. In his role as Associate Editor, the scientist handles approximately 24 manuscripts each year.
    • The Journal Landscape Ecology, Editorial Board Member ( 2012 to present )
      Handling topics related to landscape pattern analysis, landscape genetics, and climate-vegetation dynamics. In his role as subject editor, the scientist handles approximately 12 manuscripts each year.
    • The Journal Movement Ecology, Associate Editor ( 2012 to present )
      Handling topics related to landscape genetic and path-based analyses of animal movement. In his role as subject editor, the scientist handles approximately 10 manuscripts each year.
    • The Wildlife Society, Member ( 2010 to present )
    • Society for Northwestern Vertebrate Biology, Member ( 2007 to present )
    • Society for Conservation Biology, Member ( 1998 to present )
    • International Association for Landscape Ecology, Member ( 1997 to present )
    • Society of American Foresters (SAF), Member ( 1981 to present )

    Awards

    Distinguished Landscape Ecology Practitioner Award, 2018
    Distinguished Landscape Ecology Practitioner Award, US IALE
    Certificate of Merit from RMRS, 2018
    for Outstanding Performance as a Forest and Woodlands Ecosystems Program Scientist.
    Certificate of Appreciation from the University of Bern, Switzerland, 2018
    for presenting a five day intensive workshop on landscape ecology in March 2018 in Bern, Switzerland.
    Wings Across the Americas Conservation Award, 2018
    Wings Across the Americas Conservation Award from the US Forest Service International Program
    Certificate of Merit from RMRS, 2017
    for Outstanding Performance as a Forest and Woodlands Ecosystems Program Scientist.
    Rocky Mountain Research Station Award, 2017
    Rocky Mountain Research Station Distinguished Scientist Award
    Foreign Experts Program for Cultural and Educational Exchange Fellowship, 2017
    competitive award from the government of the Peoples Republic of China
    Letter of Appreciation from Biodiversity and Conservation, 2017
    for five years of service as Associate Editor
    Letter of Appreciation from Landscape Ecology, 2017
    for more than seven years of service as Associate Editor and Reviews Editor.
    Letter of Gratitude from Frontiers, 2017
    for more than five years of service as Specialty Chief Editor for Evolutionary and Population Genetics, which is co-listed in Frontiers in Genetics, Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution and Frontiers in Plant Biology.
    Letter of appreciation from James Allen, Executive Director of Northern Arizona School of Forestry, 2017
    in appreciation for all you have done for the NAU School of Forestry in your capacity as an adjunct faculty member...which has been extensive and unusually diverse provided a great opportunity for our students to benefit from the knowledge and experienc
    Certificate of Appreciation from Beijing Forestry University Wildlife Institute, 2017
    in recognition of teaching an eight-day intensive landscape ecology workshop and developing collaborative research in China.
    US Forest Service Chief s Honor Award, 2017
    US Forest Service Chief s Honor Award for Applying Knowledge Globally
    Certificate of Appreciation from the International Society for Environmental Information Science, 2017
    for presenting the Plenary lecture at the 2017 International Symposium on Geoenvironmental Informatics, Hong Kong.
    Certificate of Appreciation from the U.S. International Association of Landscape Ecologists, 2017
    for Outstanding Service to the US-IALE as Councillor-at-Large (2016-2018).
    Certificate of Merit from RMRS, 2016
    for Outstanding Performance as a Forest and Woodlands Ecosystems Program Scientist.
    Rocky Mountain Research Station Award, 2016
    Rocky Mountain Research Station Eminent Scientist Publication Award
    US IALE Recognition, 2016
    Elected Councilor at Large for the U.S. Chapter of the International Association of Landscape Ecologists.
    Certificate of Appreciation from the Wildlife Institute of India, 2016
    in appreciation of your invaluable lectures and training during the five-day intensive Workshop and Training Course on Landscape Ecology and Wildlife Conservation.
    Certificate of Appreciation from the University of Oxford, 2016
    Outstanding Research Associate Award
    Letter of appreciation from the Mexican Federal Institute of Ecology, 2015
    For presenting distinguished lectures on landscape genetics and connectivity modeling and teaching an intensive technical workshop at the 10th Annual Graduate Student Colloquium in Veracruz Mexico, October 2015
    Certificate of Merit from RMRS, 2015
    for Outstanding Performance as a Forest and Woodlands Ecosystem Program Scientist"
    USFS Deputy Chief's Award, 2015
    US Forest Service Deputy Chief s Honor Award for Distinguished Science
    Letter of appreciation from National Museum of Natural Science in Madrid Spain, 2015
    for Teaching a four-day workshop on landscape genetics and population connectivity modeling.
    Award from the journal Diversity, 2015
    Best Overall Publication for 2013-2015.
    Certificate of Merit from RMRS, 2014
    for "Outstanding Performance as a Forest and Wooklands Ecosystems Program Scientist."
    Letter of appreciation from ISPRA, Institure for Environmental Research and Conservation", 2014
    In"Gratiture for your contributions to advancing the expertise of the scientists at the Institute in spatial ecology and landscape genomics during your scientific exchange visit in March 2014, in Bologna, Italy.
    Certificate of Appreciation from University of Oxford Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, 2014
    In recognition of analytical and theoretical expertise contributed to WildCRU to advance the study and conservation of African lions and clouded leopards in the period of 2012 and 2013.
    Certificate of Appreciation from Madrid Polytechnical University, Spain, 2014
    "In recognition of outstanding contributions to studying the ecology and conservation of brown bears in Spain"
    Certificate of Appreciation from US Forest Service National Silviculurist, 2014
    For seven years contribution to teaching the National Advanced Silviculture Program in Landscape Ecology
    Certificate of Appreciation from University of Oxford Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, 2014
    in recognition of analytical and theoretical expertise contributed to WildCRU to advance the study and conservation of African lions and clouded leopards in the period of 2012 and 2013
    Certificate of Appreciation from the Polytechnical University of Madrid, Spain, 2014
    "given in recognition of his essential contributions to studying the ecology and conservation of brown bears in Spain.
    Letter of Appreciation from the Journal Frontiers, 2014
    "in recognition of exceptional service and contribution to the open-access scientific community and the Frontiers journals through his work as Specialty Chief Editor.
    Certificate of Appreciation Beijing Forestry University, China, 2014
    in recognition of teaching a multi-day workshop and giving multiple scientific lectures.
    Certificate of Appreciation Inner Mongolia University, 2014
    in recognition for hosting two Chinese scientists during their stay in the United States and providing excellent training and informative lectures during his visit to China.
    Letter of Appreciation from Pondicherry University, India, 2013
    "Outstanding contributions in co-organizing and leading instruction in two technical workshops on conservation biology. And landscape ecology in Pondicherry India during December 2013."
    Certificate of Merit Award from RMRS, 2012
    Superior Performance as a Forest and Woodland Ecosystems Program Scientist
    Certificate of Accomplishment from the Spatial Ecology and Telemetry, 2012
    For outstanding support of the wildlife profession through your FRAGSTATS software
    Certificate of Merit Award from RMRS, 2011
    Superior Performance as a Forest and Woodland Ecosystems Program Scientist
    Spot Award from US Forest Service, 2011
    For Teaching Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice
    Honorable Mention from US-IALE, 2011
    Outstanding Paper in Landscape Ecology
    Publication Award from RMRS, 2011
    Mid-Career Scientist Publication Award
    Award of Excellence from Landeco Consulting, 2011
    Exceptional contributions as co-principal instructor and coordinator of the two week intensive course Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice
    Spot Award from USDA Forest Service, 2010
    For leading webinar "Integrating Climate Change and Forest Vegetation Models for Adaptation Planning"
    Letter of Recognition, 2010
    For Contribution from the Director of the USFS National Advanced Silviculture Program
    Most Cited Author Award, 2008
    Biological Conservation Most Cited Author 2005-2008
    Best Paper Award, 2008
    Elsevier Best Paper Award
    Presidential Early Career Award, 2007
    Presidential Early Career Award in Science and Engineering
    Early Career Scientist Publication, 2007
    RMRS Early Career Scientist Publication Award
    USFS Chief's Honor Award, 2006
    USFS Chief's Honor Award for Early Career Scientist
    Best Scientific Publication Award, 2004
    Rocky Mountain Research Station Best Scientific Publication Award
    USDA Forest Service Performance Award, 2004
    For Outstanding performance leading a large multi-species inventory, monitoring and modeling project.
    Professional Enhancement Award, 2004
    U.S. International Association of Landscape Ecologists NASA-MSU Professional Enhancement Award
    UMass Fellowship, 2002
    UMass Graduate School Fellowship
    Teaching Award Nomination, 2001
    Nominated for UMass Distinguished Teaching Award
    Teaching Award Nomination, 2000
    Nominated for UMass Distinguished Teaching Award
    TA of the Year, 2000
    Organismic and Evolutionary Biology Program, TA of the Year
    GAANN Fellowship, 1998
    GAANN Fellowship in Organizmic and Evolutionary Biology (UMass)
    Research Grant, 1995
    Huxley College Thesis Research Grant
    Arnold Bolle Award, 1992
    Arnold Bolle Award in Wilderness Studies, University of Montana
    USFWS Award, 1991
    USFWS award for appreciation and contribution
    USFWS Award, 1990
    USFWS award for appreciation and contribution
    USFWS Award, 1989
    USFWS award for appreciation and contribution

    Featured Publications

    Publications

    Barros, Tania; Carvalho, Joao; Fonseca, Carlos; Cushman, Samuel A., 2019. Assessing the complex relationship between landscape, gene flow, and range expansion of a Mediterranean carnivore
    Shahnaseri, Gilda; Hemami, Mahmoud-Reza; Khosravi, Rasoul; Malakoutikhah, Shima; Omidi, Maryam; Cushman, Samuel A., 2019. Contrasting use of habitat, landscape elements, and corridors by grey wolf and golden jackal in central Iran
    Kaszta, Zaneta; Cushman, Samuel A.; Hearn, Andrew J.; Burnham, Dawn; Macdonald, Ewan A.; Goossens, Benoit; Nathan, Senthilvel K. S. S.; Macdonald, David W., 2019. Integrating Sunda clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi) conservation into development and restoration planning in Sabah (Borneo)
    Lucid, Michael K.; Ehlers, Shannon; Robinson, Lacy; Cushman, Samuel A., 2018. Beer, brains, and brawn as tools to describe terrestrial gastropod species richness on a montane landscape
    Keane II, Robert E.; Cushman, Samuel A., 2018. Best friends forever: The whitebark pine and Clark's nutcracker
    Friggens, Megan M.; Williams, Mary I.; Bagne, Karen; Wixom, Tosha T.; Cushman, Samuel A., 2018. Effects of climate change on terrestrial animals [Chapter 9]
    Wan, Ho Yi; Ganey, Joseph L.; Vojta, Christina D.; Cushman, Samuel A., 2018. Managing emerging threats to spotted owls
    McGarigal, Kevin; Mallek, Maritza; Estes, Becky; Tierney, Marilyn; Walsh, Terri; Thane, Travis; Safford, Hugh; Cushman, Samuel A., 2018. Modeling historical range of variability and alternative management scenarios in the upper Yuba River watershed, Tahoe National Forest, California
    Macdonald, Ewan A.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Landguth, Erin L.; Hearn, Andrew J.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Macdonald, David W., 2018. Simulating impacts of rapid forest loss on population size, connectivity and genetic diversity of Sunda clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi) in Borneo
    Shirk, Andrew J.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Waring, Kristen M.; Wehenkel, Christian A.; Leal-Saenz, Alejandro; Toney, Chris; Lopez-Sanchez, Carlos A., 2018. Southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) species distribution models project a large range shift and contraction due to regional climatic changes
    Kaszta, Zaneta; Cushman, Samuel A.; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Wolff, Eleonore; Marino, Jorgelina, 2018. Where buffalo and cattle meet: Modelling interspecific contact risk using cumulative resistant kernels
    Shirk, A. J.; Landguth, E. L.; Cushman, Samuel A., 2017. A comparison of individual-based genetic distance metrics for landscape genetics
    Ganey, Joseph L.; Wan, Ho Yi; Cushman, Samuel A.; Vojta, Christina D., 2017. Conflicting perspectives on spotted owls, wildfire, and forest restoration
    Bothwell, Helen M.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Woolbright, Scott A.; Hersch-Green, Erika I.; Evans, Luke M.; Whitham, Thomas G.; Allan, Gerard J., 2017. Conserving threatened riparian ecosystems in the American West: Precipitation gradients and river networks drive genetic connectivity and diversity in a foundation riparian tree (Populus angustifolia)
    Wan, Ho Yi; McGarigal, Kevin; Ganey, Joseph L.; Lauret, Valentin; Timm, Brad C.; Cushman, Samuel A., 2017. Meta-replication reveals nonstationarity in multi-scale habitat selection of Mexican Spotted Owl
    Cushman, Samuel A.; Macdonald, Ewan A.; Landguth, Erin L.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Macdonald, David W., 2017. Multiple-scale prediction of forest loss risk across Borneo
    Zeller, Katherine A.; McGarigal, Kevin; Cushman, Samuel A.; Beier, Paul; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter M., 2017. Sensitivity of resource selection and connectivity models to landscape definition
    Menon, Mitra; Bagley, Justin C.; Friedline, Christopher J.; Whipple, Amy V.; Schoettle, Anna W.; Leal-Saenz, Alejandro; Wehenkel, Christian; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Flores-Renteria, Lluvia; Gonzalez-Elizondo, M. Socorro; Sniezko, Richard A.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Waring, Kristen M.; Eckert, Andrew J., 2017. The role of hybridization during ecological divergence of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) and limber pine (P. flexilis)
    Landguth, Erin L.; Holden, Zachary A.; Mahalovich, Mary F.; Cushman, Samuel A., 2017. Using landscape genetics simulations for planting blister rust resistant whitebark pine in the US northern Rocky Mountains
    Robinson, Lacy; Cushman, Samuel A.; Lucid, Michael K., 2017. Winter bait stations as a multispecies survey tool
    Waits, Lisette P.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Spear, Steve F., 2016. Applications of landscape genetics to connectivity research in terrestrial animals [Chapter 12]
    Balkenhol, Niko; Cushman, Samuel A.; Waits, Lisette P.; Storfer, Andrew, 2016. Current status, future opportunities, and remaining challenges in landscape genetics [Chapter 14]
    Holden, Zachary A.; Swanson, Alan; Klene, Anna E.; Abatzoglou, John T.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Squires, John R.; Moisen, Gretchen; Oyler, Jared W., 2016. Development of high-resolution (250 m) historical daily gridded air temperature data using reanalysis and distributed sensor networks for the US northern Rocky Mountains
    Chambers, Carol L.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Medina-Fitoria, Arnulfo; Martinez-Fonseca, Jose; Chavez-Velasquez, Marlon, 2016. Influences of scale on bat habitat relationships in a forested landscape in Nicaragua
    McGarigal, Kevin; Wan, Ho Yi; Zeller, Kathy A.; Timm, Brad C.; Cushman, Samuel A., 2016. Multi-scale habitat selection modeling: A review and outlook
    Huang, Kang; Guo, Songtao; Cushman, Samuel A.; Dunn, Derek W.; Qi, Xiaoguang; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Jing; Li, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Shi, Zhen; Zhang, Kan; Li, Baoguo, 2016. Population structure of the golden snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus roxellana in the Qinling Mountains, central China
    Riordan, Philip; Cushman, Samuel A.; Mallon, David; Shi, Kun; Hughes, Joelene, 2016. Predicting global population connectivity and targeting conservation action for snow leopard across its range
    Puyravaud, J.-P.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Davidar, P.; Madappa, D., 2016. Predicting landscape connectivity for the Asian elephant in its largest remaining subpopulation
    Rostro-Garcia, Susana; Tharchen, Lhendup; Abade, Leandro; Astaras, Christos; Cushman, Samuel A.; Macdonald, David W., 2016. Scale dependence of felid predation risk: Identifying predictors of livestock kills by tiger and leopard in Bhutan
    Mateo-Sanchez, Maria C.; Balkenhol, Niko; Cushman, Samuel A.; Perez, Trinidad; Dominguez, Ana; Saura, Santiago, 2015. A comparative framework to infer landscape effects on population genetic structure: Are habitat suitability models effective in explaining gene flow?
    Cushman, Samuel A.; Elliot, Nicholas B.; Macdonald, David W.; Loveridge, Andrew J., 2015. A multi-scale assessment of population connectivity in African lions (Panthera leo) in response to landscape change
    Landguth, Erin L.; Johnson, Norman A.; Cushman, Samuel A., 2015. Clusters of incompatible genotypes evolve with limited dispersal
    Shirk, Andrew J.; Schroeder, Michael A.; Robb, Leslie A.; Cushman, Samuel A., 2015. Empirical validation of landscape resistance models: insights from the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)
    Mateo-Sanchez, Maria C.; Balkenhol, Niko; Cushman, Samuel A.; Perez, Trinidad; Dominguez, Ana; Saura, Santiago, 2015. Estimating effective landscape distances and movement corridors: Comparison of habitat and genetic data
    Yang, Jiuyan; Cushman, Samuel A.; Song, Xuemei; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Pujin, 2015. Genetic diversity and drivers of genetic differentiation of Reaumuria soongorica of the Inner Mongolia plateau in China
    Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; Cushman, Samuel A.; Madeira, Maria Jose; Randi, Ettore; Gomez-Moliner, Benjamin J., 2015. Isolation by distance, resistance and/or clusters? Lessons learned from a forest-dwelling carnivore inhabiting a heterogeneous landscape
    Parks, Leslie C.; Wallin, David O.; Cushman, Samuel A.; McRae, Brad H., 2015. Landscape-level analysis of mountain goat population connectivity in Washington and southern British Columbia
    Zeller, Katherine A.; McGarigal, Kevin; Cushman, Samuel A.; Beier, Paul; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter M., 2015. Using step and path selection functions for estimating resistance to movement: Pumas as a case study
    Castillo, Jessica A.; Epps, Clinton W.; Davis, Anne R.; Cushman, Samuel A., 2014. Landscape effects on gene flow for a climate-sensitive montane species, the American pika
    Cushman, Samuel A.; Max, Tamara; Meneses, Nashelly; Evans, Luke M.; Ferrier, Sharon; Honchak, Barbara; Whitham, Thomas G.; Allan, Gerard J., 2014. Landscape genetic connectivity in a riparian foundation tree is jointly driven by climatic gradients and river networks
    Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A.; Madeira, Maria Jose; Randi, Ettore; Gomez-Moliner, Benjamin J., 2014. Landscape genetics for the empirical assessment of resistance surfaces: The European pine marten (Martes martes) as a target-species of a regional ecological network
    Olson, Lucretia E.; Sauder, Joel D.; Albrecht, Nathan M.; Vinkey, Ray S.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Schwartz, Michael K., 2014. Modeling the effects of dispersal and patch size on predicted fisher (Pekania [Martes] pennanti) distribution in the U.S. Rocky Mountains
    Elliot, Nicholas B.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Loveridge, Andrew J.; Mtare, Godfrey; Macdonald, David W., 2014. Movements vary according to dispersal stage, group size, and rainfall: The case of the African lion
    Zeller, Katherine A.; McGarigal, Kevin; Beier, Paul; Cushman, Samuel A.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter M., 2014. Sensitivity of landscape resistance estimates based on point selection functions to scale and behavioral state: Pumas as a case study
    Elliot, Nicholas B.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Macdonald, David W.; Loveridge, Andrew J., 2014. The devil is in the dispersers: Predictions of landscape connectivity change with demography
    Cushman, Samuel A.; McRae, Brad; Adriaensen, Frank; Beier, Paul; Shirley, Mark; Zeller, Kathy, 2013. Biological corridors and connectivity [Chapter 21]
    Cushman, Samuel A.; Mersmann, Timothy J.; Moisen, Gretchen; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Vojta, Christina D., 2013. Chapter 5. Using Habitat Models for Habitat Mapping and Monitoring
    Cushman, Samuel A.; McGarigal, Kevin; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Vojta, Christina D.; Regan, Claudia M., 2013. Chapter 6. Landscape Analysis for Habitat Monitoring
    McCall, Barbara S.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Schwartz, Michael K.; Hayden, Jim; Cushman, Samuel A.; Zager, Pete; Kasworm, Wayne F., 2013. Combined use of mark-recapture and genetic analyses reveals response of a black bear population to changes in food productivity
    Yang, Jiuyan; Cushman, Samuel A.; Yang, Jie; Yang, Mingbo; Bao, Tiejun, 2013. Effects of climatic gradients on genetic differentiation of Caragana on the Ordos Plateau, China
    Cushman, Samuel A.; Landguth, Erin L.; Flather, Curtis H., 2013. Evaluating population connectivity for species of conservation concern in the American Great Plains
    Cushman, Samuel A.; Lewis, Jesse S.; Landguth, Erin L., 2013. Evaluating the intersection of a regional wildlife connectivity network with highways
    McKelvey, Kevin S.; Ramirez, Jennifer E.; Pilgrim, Kristine L.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Schwartz, Michael K., 2013. Genetic sampling of Palmer's chipmunks in the Spring Mountains, Nevada
    Cushman, Samuel A.; Shirk, Andrew J.; Landguth, Erin L., 2013. Landscape genetics and limiting factors
    Reding, Dawn M.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Gosselink, Todd E.; Clark, William R., 2013. Linking movement behavior and fine-scale genetic structure to model landscape connectivity for bobcats (Lynx rufus)
    Wasserman, Tzeidle N.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Littell, Jeremy S.; Shirk, Andrew J.; Landguth, Erin L., 2013. Population connectivity and genetic diversity of American marten (Martes americana) in the United States northern Rocky Mountains in a climate change context
    Cushman, Samuel A.; Wasserman, Tzeidle N.; Landguth, Erin L.; Shirk, Andrew J., 2013. Re-evaluating causal modeling with mantel tests in landscape genetics
    Lucid, Michael; Robinson, L.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Allen, L.; Schwartz, Michael K.; Pilgrim, Kristine L., 2013. Status of fisher in the northern Idaho panhandle and adjacent mountain ranges
    Blair, Christopher; Weigel, Dana E.; Balazik, Matthew; Keeley, Annika T. H.; Walker, Faith M.; Landguth, Erin; Cushman, Samuel A.; Murphy, Melanie; Waits, Lisette; Balkenhol, Niko, 2012. A simulation-based evaluation of methods for inferring linear barriers to gene flow
    Landguth, Erin L.; Fedy, Bradley C.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Garey, Andrew L.; Emel, Sarah L.; Mumma, Matthew; Wagner, Helene H.; Fortin, Marie-Josee; Cushman, Samuel A., 2012. Effects of sample size, number of markers, and allelic richness on the detection of spatial genetic pattern
    Wasserman, Tzeidle N.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Wallin, David O.; Hayden, Jim, 2012. Multi scale habitat relationships of Martes americana in northern Idaho, U.S.A.
    Cushman, Samuel A.; Landguth, Erin L., 2012. Multi-taxa population connectivity in the northern Rocky Mountains
    Shirk, Andrew J.; Wasserman, Tzeidle N.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Raphael, Martin G., 2012. Scale dependency of American marten (Martes americana) habitat relations [Chapter 12]
    Landguth, E. L.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Johnson, N., 2012. Simulating natural selection in landscape genetics
    Shirk, A. J.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Landguth, E. L., 2012. Simulating pattern-process relationships to validate landscape genetic models
    Wasserman, T. N.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Shirk, A. S.; Landguth, E. L.; Littell, J. S., 2012. Simulating the effects of climate change on population connectivity of American marten (Martes americana) in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA
    Graves, Tabitha A.; Wasserman, Tzeidle N.; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Landguth, Erin L.; Spear, Stephen F.; Balkenhol, Niko; Higgins, Colleen B.; Fortin, Marie-Josee; Cushman, Samuel A.; Waits, Lisette P., 2012. The influence of landscape characteristics and home-range size on the quantification of landscape-genetics relationships
    Rudnick, Deborah A.; Ryan, Sadie J.; Beier, Paul; Cushman, Samuel A.; Dieffenbach, Fred; Epps, Clinton W.; Gerber, Leah R.; Hartter, Joel; Jenness, Jeff S.; Kintsch, Julia; Merenlender, Adina M.; Perkl, Ryan M.; Preziosi, Damian V.; Trombulak, Stephen C., 2012. The role of landscape connectivity in planning and implementing conservation and restoration priorities
    Landguth, E. L.; Hand, B. K.; Glassy, J.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Sawaya, M. A., 2012. UNICOR: a species connectivity and corridor network simulator
    Landguth, E. L.; Hand, B. K.; Glassy, J. M.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Jacobi, M.; Julian, T. J., 2011. CDPOP Users Manual
    Cushman, Samuel A.; Wasserman, Tzeidle N.; McGarigal, Kevin, 2011. Landscape fire and wildlife habitat [chapter 9]
    Cushman, Samuel A.; Raphael, M. G.; Ruggiero, L. F.; Shirk, A. S.; Wasserman, T. N.; O'Doherty, E. C., 2011. Limiting factors and landscape connectivity: the American marten in the Rocky Mountains
    Littell, Jeremy S.; McKenzie, Donald; Kerns, Becky K.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Shaw, Charles G., 2011. Managing uncertainty in climate-driven ecological models to inform adaptation to climate change
    Evans, Jeffrey S.; Murphy, Melanie A.; Holden, Zachary A.; Cushman, Samuel A., 2011. Modeling species distribution and change using random forest [Chapter 8]
    Landguth, E. L.; Hand, B. K.; Glassy, J. M.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Carlson, R. T., 2011. UNICOR Users Manual
    Short Bull, R. A.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Mace, R.; Chilton, T.; Kendall, K. C.; Landguth, E. L.; Schwartz, Michael K.; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Allendorf, Fred W.; Luikart, G., 2011. Why replication is important in landscape genetics: American black bear in the Rocky Mountains
    Segelbacher, Gernot; Cushman, Samuel A.; Epperson, Bryan K.; Fortin, Marie-Josee; Francois, Olivier; Hardy, Olivier J.; Holderegger, Rolf; Manel, Stephanie, 2010. Applications of landscape genetics in conservation biology: concepts and challenges
    Landguth, Erin L.; Cushman, Samuel A., 2010. CDPOP: A spatially explicit cost distance population genetics program
    Hegel, Troy M.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Evans, Jeffrey; Huettmann, Falk, 2010. Current state of the art for statistical modeling of species distributions [Chapter 16]
    Holden, Zachery A.; Crimmins, Michael A.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Littell, Jeremy S., 2010. Empirical modeling of spatial and temporal variation in warm season nocturnal air temperatures in two North Idaho mountain ranges, USA
    Shirk, A. J.; Wallin, D. O.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Rice, C. G.; Warheit, K. I., 2010. Inferring landscape effects on gene flow: A new model selection framework
    Cushman, Samuel A.; Evans, Jeffrey S.; McGarigal, Kevin, 2010. Landscape ecology: Past, present, and future [Chapter 4]
    Schwartz, Michael K.; Luikart, Gordon; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Cushman, Samuel A., 2010. Landscape genomics: A brief perspective [Chapter 9]
    Cushman, Samuel A.; Landguth, Erin L.; Flather, Curtis H., 2010. Phase I: Climate change and connectivity: Assessing landscape and species vulnerability
    Landguth, E. L.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Schwartz, Michael K.; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Murphy, M.; Luikart, G., 2010. Quantifying the lag time to detect barriers in landscape genetics
    Landguth, E. L.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Murphy, M. A.; Luikart, G., 2010. Relationships between migration rates and landscape resistance assessed using individual-based simulations
    Cushman, Samuel A.; Landguth, Erin L., 2010. Scale dependent inference in landscape genetics
    Wasserman, Tzeidle N.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Schwartz, Michael K.; Wallin, David O., 2010. Spatial scaling and multi-model inference in landscape genetics: Martes americana in northern Idaho
    Cushman, Samuel A.; Gutzweiler, Kevin; Evans, Jeffrey S.; McGarigal, Kevin, 2010. The Gradient Paradigm: A conceptual and analytical framework for landscape ecology [Chapter 5]
    Cushman, Samuel A.; Evans, Jeffrey S.; McGarigal, Kevin; Kiesecker, Joseph M., 2010. Toward Gleasonian landscape ecology: From communities to species, from patches to pixels
    Epperson, Bryan K.; McRae, Brad H.; Scribner, Kim; Cushman, Samuel A.; Rosenberg, Michael S.; Fortin, Marie-Josee; James, Patrick M. A.; Murphy, Melanie; Manel, Stephanie; Legendre, Pierre; Dale, Mark R. T., 2010. Utility of computer simulations in landscape genetics
    Evans, Jeffrey S.; Cushman, Samuel A., 2009. Gradient modeling of conifer species using random forests
    Balkenhol, Niko; Gugerli, Felix; Cushman, Samuel A.; Waits, Lisette P.; Coulon, Aurelie; Arntzen, J. W.; Holderegger, Rolf; Wagner, Helene H., 2009. Identifying future research needs in landscape genetics: Where to from here?
    McKelvey, Kevin S.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Schwartz, Michael K., 2009. Landscape genetics [Chapter 17]
    McKelvey, Kevin S.; Cushman, Samuel A.; Schwartz, Michael K.; Ruggiero, Leonard F., 2009. Wildlife monitoring across multiple spatial scales using grid-based sampling
    Schwartz, Michael K.; Copeland, Jeffrey P.; Anderson, Neil J.; Squires, John R.; Inman, Robert M.; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Pilgrim, Kristy L.; Waits, Lisette P.; Cushman, Samuel A., 2009. Wolverine gene flow across a narrow climatic niche
    Cushman, Samuel A.; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Schwartz, Michael K., 2008. Case study 6.1: DNA survey for fisher in northern Idaho
    Cushman, Samuel A.; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Flather, Curtis H.; McGarigal, Kevin, 2008. Do forest community types provide a sufficient basis to evaluate biological diversity?
    Cushman, Samuel A.; McGarigal, Kevin, 2008. Landscape metrics, scales of resolution
    McKenzie, Donald; Raymond, Crystal L.; Cushman, Samuel A., 2008. Modeling understory vegetation and its response to fire [Chapter 15]
    Cushman, Samuel A.; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Schwartz, Michael K., 2008. Use of empirically derived source-destination models to map regional conservation corridors
    Compton, Bradley W.; McGarigal, Kevin; Cushman, Samuel A.; Gamble, Lloyd R., 2007. A resistant-kernel model of connectivity for amphibians that breed in vernal pools
    Cushman, Samuel A.; McKenzie, Donald; Peterson, David L.; Littell, Jeremy; McKelvey, Kevin S., 2007. Research agenda for integrated landscape modeling
    Schwartz, Michael K.; Cushman, Samuel A.; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Hayden, Jim; Engkjer, Cory, 2006. Detecting genotyping errors and describing black bear movement in northern Idaho
    Cushman, Samuel A.; McKenzie, Donald; Peterson, David L.; Littell, Jeremy; McKelvey, Kevin S., 2006. Research agenda for integrated landscape modeling
    Cushman, Samuel A.; Chase, Michael; Griffin, Curtice, 2005. Elephants in space and time
    McGarigal, Kevin; Cushman, Samuel A.; Regan, Claudia, 2005. Quantifying terrestrial habitat loss and fragmentation: A protocol
    McGarigal, Kevin; Cushman, Samuel A., 2005. The gradient concept of landscape structure [Chapter 12]
    Grand, Joanna; Buonaccorsi, John; Cushman, Samuel A.; Griffin, Curtice R.; Neel, Maile C., 2004. A multiscale landscape approach to predicting bird and moth rarity hotspots in a threatened pitch pine-scrub oak community
    Neel, Maile C.; McGarigal, Kevin; Cushman, Samuel A., 2004. Behavior of class-level landscape metrics across gradients of class aggregation and area
    High-severity wildfires are increasing and researchers are issuing different findings regarding wildfire impacts on spotted owls (Strix occidentalis), a threatened species that nests in mature, western forests with large trees and high canopy cover. Data from different studies show mixed responses of spotted owls to fire, but suggest that the effects of high-severity wildfires could be significant throughout the range of all three subspecies. The debate over owls, wildfire, and managed forest restoration needs further evaluation.
    Final resistance map depicting the combined effects of topographical roughness, slope position, land cover and human footprint on resistance to tiger gene flow in Central India.
    The Bengal tiger is the world’s largest feline, which has suffered immense declines in range and population. Today, less than 10 percent of the tiger's original range is occupied with a global population of less than 7000 individuals in the wild. Understanding the factors that drive local abundance and population connectivity are critical for the conservation of this species.  
    White pine blister rust on southwestern white pine
    Collaborative research is quantifying adaptive variation in tree species, specifically in southwestern white pine, across the western United States. This research predicts changes in species distribution and their ability to adapt in the face of global change by combining population-wide genomic data collection, common garden manipulative experiments, pathogen resistance trials, and simulation modeling.
    Figure 1Map of Borneo showing areas of forest loss between 2000 and 2010 in yellow, areas of forest persistence from 2000 to 2010 in green, and areas that were not forest in 2000 in black.
    A collaborative team, led by RMRS Research Ecologist Samuel Cushman, has produced a substantial breakthrough in advancing predictive modeling of drivers and patterns of deforestation. The method combines multi-scale optimization with machine-learning predictive modeling to identify the drivers of deforestation and map relative future deforestation risk.  
    The Mexican spotted owl is listed as a Threatened Species under the Endangered Species Act and is vulnerable to habitat loss from wildfire and climate change. RMRS scientists are leading a cutting-edge modeling effort to predict the interactive effects of forest restoration, wildfire, and climate change on the distribution, population size, and population connectivity of Mexican spotted owl across the Southwestern United States.  
    The Santa Rita Mountains in Arizona are home to unique bird species (Jamie Sanderlin).
    Utilizing genomics to identify species vulnerability to climate change is a newly emerging area of research. This project focuses on three species specifically chosen because they represent three highly distinct trees that are vulnerable in different ways to climate change: Fremont Cottonwood, Southwestern White Pine, and Douglas Fir. Understanding relationships between tree genomics, climate change, species migration, adaptive evolution and forest resiliency promises to revolutionize managment and conservation of natural resources.
    African lion. Photo: S. Cushman
    Populations of large carnivores are declining globally, and in Africa the ranges of lions, leopards, wild dogs and spotted hyenas have contracted dramatically in the past few decades. The goal of this project is to assess current population distribution and connectivity for these species across a vast trans-boundary region of Southern Africa, comprising the Kavango-Zambeizi Trans-Frontier Conservation Area (KAZA), which consists of most of Botswana as well as portions of Zambia, Angola, Zimbabwe, Angola and South Africa.
    The swift fox is a species of conservation concern in the Great Plains (photo compliments of the National Park Service).
    Increasing human populations have fueled urban development and land conversion, causing substantial loss and fragmentation of wildlife habitat. In addition, climate change is expected to drive large-scale shifts in ecological conditions and geographic shifts in vegetation types. RMRS researchers found that species’ dispersal ability plays a larger role than its landscape resistance in determining connectivity. Specific information on habitat needs and connectivity issues for multiple species can better inform habitat management at landscape scales.
    The movement of black bears is strongly limited by roads.
    Increasing human populations have fueled urban development and land conversion, causing substantial loss and fragmentation of wildlife habitat. Researchers evaluated conditions for 108 different species across a large portion of the Northern Rockies in order to predict current and potential future patterns of fragmentation, prioritize keystone corridors for protection and enhancement, and identify which species in which places might require habitat restoration or assisted migration.
    RMRS scientists find that greater sage-grouse are highly vulnerable to landscape change. Their rigorous assessment has contributed greatly to the understanding of sage grouse ecology, population structure, and movement, and has provided spatially explicit, fine-scale, broad-extent, quantitative predictions of changes in sage grouse distribution and population connectivity.
    Climate change is dramatically altering the distribution, population connectivity and adaptive variation of conifer trees across the western United States, including large range shifts, reorganization of tree communities, die-offs, and decreases in productivity. This project has provided several important tools and applications to managers, including spatially explicit, fine-scale, broad-extent, quantitative predictions of changes in species distribution, adaptive variation and population connectivity for several conifer species across the full extent of the western United States.
    Sage grouse in a field
    Recent connectivity assessments for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Columbia Basin, Washington, provide an opportunity to (1) evaluate approaches for parameterizing resistance models based on sage grouse specifically or the concept of landscape integrity, (2) derive parameters from expert or empirical data, and (3) explore the influence of scale on model accuracy. Sage grouse in this region occupy a small fraction of their former range and are now threatened by extinction.
    Climate change is having dramatic impacts on the distribution and population connectivity of wildlife species the western United States. This project is combining vast sampling of species occurrence and genetic characteristics with sophisticated spatial modeling of gene flow, connectivity, and adaptive variation. This research will benefit society by providing detailed and specific predictions of the effects of climate change on wildlife across a vast area of the United States, and it can inform development of optimized adaptation strategies to mitigate the negative effects of climate change on forest ecosystems.
    Scientists with the Rocky Mountain Research Station and their collaborators have made great contributions to the development and application of broad-scale, representative, multi-resource monitoring protocols. They have played a key role in developing and improving sampling methodology, survey design, and analysis of non-invasively collected genetic data.
    Both southwestern white pine and limber pine are threatened by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola that causes the lethal disease white pine blister rust. Identifying genetic resistance to white pine blister rust in the pines and planting seedlings with those resistance traits are critical components of proactive and restoration strategies to conserve and sustain the species.
    Over one million acres will receive treatments across the Great Basin Landscape Conservation Cooperative (GBLCC) to conserve greater sage-grouse habitat over the next decade. These treatments are intended to restore native sagebrush habitat by reducing encroachment of juniper, infestations of invasive weeds, and wildfire. This project will evaluate the effects of vegetation treatments on population connectivity, genetic diversity and gene flow of wildlife species across the full extent of the Great Basin Landscape Conservation Cooperative.
    Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) scientists have been at the forefront of efforts to understand the ecology of the threatened Mexican spotted owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) for more than 25 years. These scientists and their cooperators have produced most of the existing scientific information on this species. Today, RMRS scientists continue to be actively involved in developing new knowledge on this owl, synthesizing existing information, and working with managers to integrate habitat requirements for the owl and its important prey species into land management plans.
    Innovative quantitative approaches have been developed for evaluating wildfire and prescribed fire effects on wildlife communities in several western North American national forests.
    The avifauna within the Sky Islands of southeastern Arizona includes species found nowhere else in the United States. Rocky Mountain Research Station scientists initiated a study in the 1990s on avian distribution and habitat associations within the Sky Islands. This project involves monitoring vegetation and bird populations following wildfires, applying climate change models to assess potential changes and explore strategies for managing resilient forests and avian populations, and engaging citizens in data collection and long-term avian monitoring.