Rangelands are ecologically diverse ecosystems in the drier parts of the United States, occupying around 25 percent of the United States land area. Rangelands provide a variety of ecosystem services, including wildlife habitat, clean water, and carbon sequestration. Rangelands also provide the opportunity for commodity products such as domestic livestock, energy (solar, and oil and gas), and small diameter wood products. Rangelands contribute to the livelihoods of thousands of people in the Great Plains and the Southwest of the United States. These livelihoods are vulnerable to climate change from both an ecological and a socioeconomic perspective. Adaptation to this changing climate will have to address ecological stress as well as the social and economic challenges.