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Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest

Scientist in Charge: 

General Description

The Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest, located on the Tonto National Forest, in Arizona.
The Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest, located on the Tonto National Forest, in Arizona.
The Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest is a research area focused on studying watershed management. The Experimental Forest lies roughly 30 miles (48 km) northeast of Globe, Arizona, and is located within the Tonto National Forest.

The climate, soil, and landforms of the 13,255 acres (5,364 ha) Sierra Ancha are representative of much of the southwestern region of the United States, particularly Arizona, and are representative of the Verde, Salt, and Upper Gila watersheds. Plant types within the forest range from semi-desert shrub and grassland to pine-fir forests at higher elevations. Sierra Ancha lies along the crest of the Sierra Ancha Mountain range and includes areas between 3,550 to 7,723 feet (1,082 to 2,354 m) in elevation.

Background Information and History

The USDA Forest Service first established research plots in Sierra Ancha in 1925. The research area was named the Parker Creek Experimental Forest in 1932, with a research focus on watershed management. This experimental forest was expanded and renamed the Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest in 1938.

The initial research mission on the newly formed experimental forest was to study the effects of grazed and ungrazed vegetation on water yields and to learn more about water cycle relationships with the varying vegetation zones of the Sierra Ancha. Research was conducted at Parker Creek, Natural Drainages, and Workman Creek.

Hydrologic records began after the Civilian Conservation Corps installed weirs and equipment in the 1930s. The Workman Creek watersheds (North Fork, Middle Fork and South Fork) are located at intermediate elevations (4,800 to 6,000 ft) and fall within the high-elevation mixed conifer vegetation type. The four Natural Drainages watersheds are located in the chaparral vegetation zone of the experimental forest and range from 9 to 19 acres in size, and hydrologic records began here in 1934.

Publications

Ffolliott, Peter F. , 1999
; DeBano, Leonard F. ; Baker, Malchus B. Jr. , 1999
DeBano, Leonard F. ; Baker, Malchus B. Jr. ; Overby, Steven T. , 1999
; DeBano, Leonard F. ; Ffolliott, Peter F. , 1999
Baker, Malchus B. Jr. ; DeBano, Leonard F. ; Ffolliott, Peter F. , 1999
Troendle, Charles A. ; Kaufmann, Merrill R. ; Hamre, R. H. ; Winokur, Robert P. , 1987

Publications (Non RMRS)

Alberhasky, J.M. 1983. Stormflow analysis of chaparral conversion of small, central Arizona watersheds. MS Thesis. Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ. 106 p.

Anderson Henry W., Marvin D. Hoover and Kenneth G. Reinhart. 1976. Forest and water: Effects of forest management on floods, sedimentation and water supply. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Report PSW-18. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA.

Arnold Joseph F. 1960. The Arizona watershed program. Pp 59-61 in Proceedings of the Fifth Annual New Mexico Water Conference: Watershed Management. November 1-2. New Mexico State University, Albuquerque, NM.

Baker, Malchus B. Jr. 1990. Parker Creek. Pp 74-75 in Robert Z. Callaham (tech. ed.) Case studies and catalog of watershed projects in western provinces and states. Report No. 22, Wildland Resources Center, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

Baker, Malchus B. Jr. 1990. Workman Creek. Pp 77 in Robert Z. Callaham (tech. ed.) Case studies and catalog of watershed projects in western provinces and states. Report No. 22, Wildland Resources Center, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

Barrett, Thomas W. 1970. Water yield improvement, Salt, Verde, and Gila Basins. Final report, Cooperative Agreement No. 16-68, Line Project. FS-RM-1606, 319 p. On file at the Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO.

Barrows, Harlan H. 1913. Roosevelt Dam and the Salt River Valley. The Journal of Geography. 11(9):277-284.

Bay Roger R. 1971. Water yield research: The national picture. Arizona Watershed Symposium Proceedings, September 22nd. Phoenix, AZ. 15:20-24.

Bliss, E.S. 1937. Tree oaks of the Southwest. USDA Forest Service, Research Note No. 20. Southwestern Forest and Range Experiment Station, Tucson, AZ.

Boner, F.C., W.B. Garrett and A.D. Konieczki. 1989. Water resource data for Arizona: Water year 1988. USGS, Water-Data Report AZ-88-1.

Boner, F.C., C.F. Smith, W.B. Garrett and A.D. Konieczki. 1990. Water resource data for Arizona: Water year 1989. USGS, Water-Data Report AZ-89-1.

Boner, F.C., A.D. Konieczki and R.G. Davis. 1991. Water resource data for Arizona: Water year 1990. USGS, Water-Data Report AZ-90-1.

Boner, F.C., R.G. Davis and N.R. Duet. 1992. Water resource data for Arizona: Water year 1991. USGS, Water-Data Report AZ-91-1.

Bosch, J.M. and J.D. Hewlett. 1982. A review of catchment experiments to determine the effect of vegetation changes on water yield and evapotranspiration. Journal of Hydrology. 5:3-23.

Bradshaw, Gordon V.R. and Anthony Ross. 1961. Ectoparasites of Arizona bats. Journal of the Arizona Academy of Science. 1(4):109-112.

Branson, Farrel A., Gerald F. Gifford, Kenneth G. Renard, Richard F. Hadely and Elbert H. Reid (ed.). 1981. Runoff and water harvesting. Chapter 5 in Rangeland Hydrology. Society for Range Management, Denver, CO: Range Science Series No. 1. 2nd Ed. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. Dubuque, Iowa.

Branson, Farrel A., Gerald F. Gifford, Kenneth G. Renard, Richard F. Hadely and Elbert H. Reid (ed.). 1981. Erosion, sediment yield, and water quality. Chapter 6 in Rangeland Hydrology. Society for Range Management, Denver, CO: Range Science Series No. 1. 2nd Ed. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. Dubuque, Iowa.

Branson, Farrel A., Gerald F. Gifford, Kenneth G. Renard, Richard F. Hadely and Elbert H. Reid (ed.). 1981. Evaporation and transpiration. Chapter 7 in Rangeland Hydrology. Society for Range Management, Denver, CO: Range Science Series No. 1. 2nd Ed. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. Dubuque, Iowa.

Butler, A.P. Jr. and V.P. Byers. 1969. Uranium. Pp 282-292 in Mineral and Water Resources of Arizona. The Arizona Bureau of Mines, Bulletin 180.

Cable, Dwight R. 1957. Chemical control of chaparral shrubs in central Arizona. Journal of Forestry. 55:899-903.

Cable, Dwight R. 1958. Estimating surface area of ponderosa pine foliage in central Arizona. Forest Science. 4: 45-49.

Carmichael, Robert S. 1976. Chaparral vegetation of the Mazatzal Mountains, Arizona. Master’s Thesis. Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

Cockrum, E. Lendell. 1960. The recent mammals of Arizona: Their taxonomy and distribution. University of Arizona Press, Tucson AZ. 276 p.

Conway, Clay M. and Chester T Wrucke. 1986. Proterozoic geology of the Sierra Ancha-Tonto Basin-Mazatzal Mountains area, road log and field trip guide. Arizona Geological Society Digest 16:227-247.

Cooperrider, C.K. and Glenton C. Skyes. 1938. The relationship of streamflow to precipitation on the Salt River watershed above Roosevelt Dam. Arizona Agricultural Experimental Station Technical Bulletin 76. University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. 69 p.

Cooperrider, C.K. and Barnard A. Hendricks. 1940. The role of vegetation on steep mountain slopes. USDA Forest Service, Research Note No 85. Southwestern Forest and Range Experiment Station, Tucson, AZ.

Cooperrider, C.K., H.D. Cassidy and C.H. Niederhof. 1945. Forecasting stream-flow of the Salt River, Arizona. American Geophysical Union Transactions. 26:275-282.

Courtney, R.E. and J.J. Baldwin. 1964. Modifying chaparral brushland on the Tonto National Forest to improve multiple resource values. Arizona Watershed Symposium Proceedings, September 23rd. Tempe, AZ. 8:31-35.

Croxen, Fred W. 1926. History of grazing on the Tonto. Grazing Conference. Phoenix AZ. November 4-5. 12p.

Davis, Edwin A. and Gerald J. Gottfried 1983. Picloram pellets control New Mexico locust sprouts on a cleared forest site in Arizona. Down to Earth. 39:18-21.

DeBano, Leonard F., Daniel G. Neary, and Peter F. Ffolliott. 1998. Water. Chapter 8 in Fire’s Effect on Ecosystems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY.

Dickerman, Robert W. 1954. An ecological survey of the Three-Bar Game Management unit located near Roosevelt, Arizona. MS Thesis University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

Doutt, J. Kenneth. 1931. A new subspecies of the Arizona Gray squirrel (Sciurus Arizonensis Coues). Annals of the Carnegie Museum. 20:271-273.

Duval, Joseph S. and James A. Pitkin. 1980. An aerial radiometric and magnetic survey of the Sierra Ancha Wilderness, Salome study area, Gila County, Arizona USGS, Reston, VA.

Earth Tracks. 1985. Sierra Anchas Wilderness recreation map. Earth Tracks, Phoenix, AZ.

Enz, Richard W. 1964. Water supply out and federal-state-private cooperative snow survey for Arizona (Salt, Verde, Gila and Part of Lower Colorado River Basin) USDA Soil Conservation Service, Phoenix, AZ.

Faeth, Stanley H. 1985. Host leaf selection by leaf miners: interactions among three trophic levels. Ecology 66(3):870-875.

Faeth, Stanley H. 1985. Quantitative defense theory and patterns of feeding by oak insects. Oecologia (Berlin) 68:34-40.

Faeth, Stanley H. 1986. Indirect interactions between temporally separated herbivores mediated by the host plant. Ecology 67(2):479-494.

Faeth, Stanley H., and Robert F. Rooney III. 1993. Variable budbreak and insect folivory of Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii: Fragaceae). The Southwestern Naturalist 38(1):1-8.

Ffolliott, Peter F. 1974. Potential for water yield improvement by vegetation management in Arizona. Arizona Watershed Symposium Proceedings, September 25th. Phoenix, AZ. 18:47-51.

Ffolliott, Peter F. and David B. Thorud. 1974. More water for Arizona. University of Arizona Technical Bulletin 215. Tucson , AZ. 28p.

Ffolliott, Peter F. and David B. Thorud. 1974. Vegetation management for increased water yield In Arizona. Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Arizona Technical Bulletin 215. Tucson , AZ. 38p.

Ffolliott, Peter F and David B. Thorud. 1975. Watershed management’s effects on many resources. Arizona Watershed Symposium Proceedings, September 24th. Phoenix, AZ. 19:39-42.

Ffolliott, Peter F. and David B. Thorud. 1975. Water yield improvement by vegetation management: Focus on Arizona. USDC National Technical Information Service Report, Springfield, VA.

Ffolliott, Peter F., Leonard F. DeBanoand Malchus B. Baker, Jr. 1998. A short history of the Arizona Watershed Program. Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest 28:1-12.

Ffolliott, Peter F. and Malchus B. Baker, Jr. 2001. Labor Day Storm of 1970 Revisited 30 years later. Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest 31:71-175.

Ffolliott, Peter F., Malchus B. Baker Jr., and Leonard F. DeBano. 2003. Arizona watershed management program”. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science Issue: Watershed Management in Arizona 35(1):5-22.

Fisk G.G., N.R. Duet, D.W. Evans, C.E. Angeroth, N.K. Castillo and S.A. Longsworth. 2004. Water resource data for Arizona: Water year 2003. USGS, Water-Data Report AZ-03-1.

Fisk G.G., N.R. Duet, E.H. McGuire, C.E. Angeroth, N.K. Castillo and C.F. Smith. 2005. Water resource data for Arizona: Water year 2004. USGS, Water-Data Report AZ-04-1.

Fletcher, H. C., and L. R. Rich. 1954. Discussion of Use of water by native vegetation versus grasses and forbs on watersheds by F. J. Veihmeyer. Am. Geophys. Union Trans. 35:652-655.

Fletcher, H.C. and L.R. Rich. 1955. Classifying southwestern watersheds on the basis of water yields. Journal of Forestry. 53:196-202.

Fox, Kel M. 1966. Watershed management in Arizona. In Water and America’s Future: Proceeding of the 21st Annual Meeting: Soil Conservation Society of America. August 14-17. University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.

Fox, Kel M. 1968. The Pacific Southwest Water Yield Improvement Act. Arizona Watershed Symposium Proceedings, September 18th. Phoenix, AZ. 12:44.

Fox, Kel M., Peter F. Ffolliott, Malchus B. Baker, Jr. and Leonard DeBano. 2000. More water for Arizona: A history of the Arizona watershed program and the Arizona Water Resources Committee. Primer Publishers Phoenix, AZ. 118 p.

Gary, Howard L. 1961. The effects of varying plant densities on water yield and erosion as determined from a lysimeter study in central Arizona. M.S. Thesis, Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas. 88 p.

Gottfried Gerald J. 1977. The effects of the gradual reduction in stand density on streamflow, water quality and wood production on a mixed conifer watershed: A proposed experimental treatment for the Middle Fork of Workman Creek. Unpublished report on file with the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station, Phoenix, Arizona.

Gottfried, Gerald J., and Leonard F. DeBano. 1983. Total shrub biomass of a New Mexico locust site in central Arizona. Pp 310-315 inNew Forests for a Changing World, Proceedings Society of American Foresters 1983 National Convention: Bethesda, MD, Society of American Foresters.

Gottfried, Gerald J. 1989. Effects of patch clearcutting on water yield improvement and on timber production in an Arizona mixed conifer watershed PhD. Dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

Gottfried Gerald J. and Daniel G. Neary. 2001. History of the Workman Creek Watershed, Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest, Arizona. Pp 545-458 in Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters. 2000 National Convention, November 16-20, Washington D.C. Society of American Foresters, Bethesda, MD.

Gottfried Gerald J. and Daniel G. Neary. 2002. Hydrology of the upper Parker Creek Watershed, Sierra Ancha Mountains, Arizona. Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest 32:5-17.

Green, Christina and William D. Sellers. 1964. Arizona Climate. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ. 503p.

Gregory, Paul W. and Peter F. Ffolliott. 1976. Water quality of streamflow from forested watersheds on sedimentary soils. Hydrology & Water Resources in AZ and the Southwest: Proceedings of the Arizona Section – AWRA and the Hydrology Section – Arizona Academy of Science. April 29-May1, Tucson, AZ. 6:93-95.

Grimm, Nancy B. and Stuart G. Fisher. 1986. Nitrogen limitation potential of Arizona streams and rivers. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. 21:31-43.

Haines, Donald A. 1977. Where to find weather and climatic data for forest research studies and management planning. USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul MN, General Technical Report NC-27.

Haury, Emil W. 1934. The Canyon Creek ruins and the cliff dwellings of the Sierra Ancha. Gila Pueblo, Private printing for the Medallion, Globe, AZ.

Hedden, George W. 1957. Management practices of Indian Lands affecting watershed conditions. Arizona Watershed Program. Pp 17-20 in. Proceedings of First meeting of Federal, State and Private Agencies contributing to Arizona Watershed Reseach and Management. September 23. Phoenix , AZ.

Hendricks, Barnard A.1941. Effects of forest litter on soil temperature. Chronica Botanica. 6:440-441.

Hendricks, Barnard A. and Jerry M. Johnson. 1944. Effects of fire on steep mountain slopes in slopes in central Arizona. Journal of Forestry. 42:568-571.

Hendricks, Barnard A.1936. Revegetation of small gullies through the use of seeded earth-filled sacks. USDA Forest Service, Research Note No 1. Southwestern Forest and Range Experiment Station, Tucson, AZ.

Hendricks, Barnard A.1938. The conservation of water of small seps, springs, and earth tanks in the Southwest. USDA Forest Service, Research Note No 3. Southwestern Forest and Range Experiment Station, Tucson, AZ.

Hendricks, Barnard A. and Neil Grabe. 1939. The use of cotton netting in revegetation of road-fill slopes. USDA Forest Service, Research Note No 78. Southwestern Forest and Range Experiment Station, Tucson, AZ.

Hendricks, Barnard A.1942. Effects of grass litter on infiltration of rainfall on granitic soils in a semidesert shrub-grass area. USDA Forest Service, Research Note No 96. Southwestern Forest and Range Experiment Station, Tucson, AZ.

Hibbert, Alden R. 1965. Forest treatment effects on water yield. Internal Report. On file at USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station, Flagstaff, AZ. 44 p.

Hibbert, Alden R. 1967. Forest treatment effects on water yield. Pp 527-543 in William E. Sopper and Howard W. Hull (eds.) International Symposium on Forest Hydrology: Proceedings of a National Science Foundation Advanced Science Seminar. August 29 - September 10. University Park, PE. Symposium Publication Division, Pergamon Press, NY, NY. 813 p.

Hibbert, Alden R. and Paul A. Ingebo. 1971. Chaparral treatment effects on streamflow. Arizona Watershed Symposium Proceedings, September 22nd. Phoenix, AZ. 15:20-24.

Hibbert, Alden R. 1974. Water resources research on forest and rangelands in Arizona. Hydrology & Water Resources in AZ and the Southwest: Proceedings of the Arizona Section – AWRA and the Hydrology Section – Arizona Academy of Science. April 19-20, Flagstaff, AZ. 4:1-9.

Hibbert, Alden R. 1974. Chaparral research for water and other resources. Arizona Watershed Symposium Proceedings, September 25th. Phoenix, AZ. 18:30-36.

Hibbert, Alden R. Edwin A. Davis and Thomas C. Brown. 1975. Managing chaparral for water and other resources in Arizona. Watershed Management Symposium held by the ASCE Irrigation and Drainage Division, August 11-13. Logan, UT.

Hibbert, Alden R. 1981. Opportunities to increase water yield in the Southwest by vegetation management. Pp 223-230 in Interior West watershed management: Proceedings of a Symposium. Spokane WA, April 8-10, 1980. Washington State University, Pullman WA.

Hibbert, Alden R., Edwin A. Davis and Oren D. Knipe. 1982. Water yield changes resulting from treatment of Arizona chaparral. USDA Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-58. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station Berkeley, CA.

Hibbert, Alden R. 1986. Water yield improvement in chaparral: A summary of experimental results. Pp 15-26 in Michael R. Wagner (ed.) Changes and Opportunities in Chaparral Management. Proceedings of the Southwestern Society of American Foresters Annual Fall Meeting. November 12-14. Prescott, AZ. SAF Publication No. SAF 87.10.

Johnson, R. Roy. 1960. The biota of Sierra Ancha, Gila County, Arizona. Masters Thesis, University of Arizona, Tucson. 114 p.

Jones, Ronald A. 1981. Summary of snow survey measurements for Arizona and pertinent portions of New Mexico: 1938-1980. USDA Soil Conservation Service, Phoenix, AZ. p. 179.

Kearney, T.H. 1964. Arizona localities of interest to botanists. Journal of the Arizona Academy of Science. 3:94-103.

Kemp, Kenneth. 1965. A study of litter and vegetation in the upper chaparral area of Central Arizona. M.S. Thesis, University of Arizona, Tucson.

Kennedy, Fred H. 1958. The watershed: Management of mountain forests for more water, timber and forage: costs – so far determined in various types of watershed pilot projects now being developed by the Forest Service. Arizona Watershed Symposium Proceedings, September 22nd,1958. 2:35-40.

Knipe, Oren D. 1985. Effects of reducing shrub cover on moisture stress in mountain mahogany. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. Vol. 40, 5:445-447.

Koestner, P.E., K.A. Koestner, D.G. Neary and J. Gottfried. 2010. Patterns and trends in streamflow from 1939 to 1980 at Workman Creek, Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest, Arizona. Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest, 40: 11-16.

Koestner, Peter E.; Koestner, Karen; Neary, Daniel G.; Trettin, Carl C.  2012. An overview of the Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest's role in the free-air CO2 enrichment large wood decomposition experiment. Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest. 42: 9-12.

Lee, Richard. 1963. Evaluation of solar beam irradiation as a climatic parameter of mountain watersheds. Hydrology Papers, Colorado State University. Ft. Collins, CO.

Lillie, D.T. George E. Glendening and C.P. Pase. 1964. Sprout growth of shrub live oak as influenced by season of burning and chemical treatments. Journal of Range Management. 17:69-72.

Lindberg, Paul A. 1989. Precambrian ore deposits of Arizona. Arizona Geological Society Digest 18:187-210.

Lindenmuth A.W., Jr. and James R. Davis. 1962. Chemical treatment helps burn brush safely in Arizona. The Timberman. 63(7):9.

Lindenmuth A.W., Jr. and G.E. Glendening. 1962. Control burning of Arizona chaparral – a 1962 progress report. Arizona Watershed Symposium Proceedings, September 18th, Tempe, AZ. 6:23-24.

Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1938. Pteridophytes of Sierra Ancha, Arizona. American Fern Journal. 28:144-151.

Little, Elbert L., Jr.1938. Southwestern species of agave. USDA Forest Service, Research Note No 45. Southwestern Forest and Range Experiment Station, Tucson, AZ.

Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1939. Hepaticae of Sierra Ancha, Arizona. Bryologist. 42:24-27.

Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1940. Amphibians and reptiles of the Roosevelt Reservoir area, Arizona. Copeia. 4:260-265.

Lowe, Charles H. Jr. 1961. Biotic communities in the sub-Mogollon Region of the inland Southwest. Journal of the Arizona Academy of Science. 2(1):40-49.

Love, L.D. 1958. Rangeland watershed management. Pp 198-200 in Proceedings, Society of American Foresters. Salt Lake City, UT.

Maddock, Thomas, Jr. et al. 1940. Upper Gila River Basin report. National Resource Planning Board, Water Resources Committee.

Martin, W.P. and Lowell R. Rich. 1948. Preliminary hydrologic results, 1935-1948, ‘Base Rock’ undisturbed soil lysimeters in the grassland type, Arizona. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings. 13:561-567.

McClaran, Mitchel P. and Ward W. Brady. 1994. Arizona’s diverse vegetation and contribution to plant ecology. Rangelands. 16(5):208-217.

McCormack, H.F., G.G. Fisk, N.R. Duet, D.W. Evans, and N.K. Castillo. 2002. Water resource data for Arizona: Water year 2001. USGS, Water-Data Report AZ-01-1.

McCormack, H.F., G.G. Fisk, N.R. Duet, D.W. Evans, W.P. Roberts, and N.K. Castillo. 2003. Water resource data for Arizona: Water year 2002. USGS, Water-Data Report AZ-02-1.

Meiman, James R. and Jerome S. Horton. 1964. Watershed management research from desert to alpine. Pp 93-96 in Proceedings, Society of American Foresters. Denver, CO.

Michael, J.L and Daniel G. Neary. 1995. Environmental fate and the effects of herbicides in forest, chaparral and range ecosystems of the Southwest. Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest 22-25:69-75.

Miller, Alden H. 1937. Notes on the Saw-whet Owl. Condor 39:130-131.

Minckley, W.L. and D.E. Brown. 1982. Southwest wetlands: Biotic communities in the American Southwest – United States and Mexico. Pp 223-288 in D.A. Brown (ed.) Desert Plants. Vol. 4, No1-4, part 6. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.

Mohan, Kyle S. 1978. Carbohydrate cycles of Cercocarpus betuloides and Quercus turbinella. MS Thesis, Arizona State University, Tempe. 68 p.

Nations, Dale and Edmund Stump. 1981. Geology of Arizona. Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque, Iowa.

Neary, Daniel G. and Gerald J. Gottfried. 2001. Post-wildfire peak flood flows: Causes and effects. Pp 459-463 in Proceedings Society of American Foresters 2000 National Convention. November 16-20. Washington, DC. Bethesda, MD.

Neary, Daniel G. 2002. Post-wildfire flood generation processes. Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest, 32:71-76.

Neary, Daniel G. and Gerald J. Gottfried. 2002. Fire and floods: Post fire watershed responses. In Domingos X. Viegas (ed.) Proceedings of the IV International conference on Forest Fire Research, Luso, Coimbra, Portugal, November 18-23. Forest Fire Research & Wildland Fire Safety. Millpress, Rotterdam, NL.

Neary, Daniel G., Gerald J. Gottfried, Leonard F. DeBanoand Aregai Tecle. 2003. Impacts of fire on watershed resources. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science Issue: Watershed Management in Arizona 35(1):23-41.

Neary, Daniel G., Gerald J. Gottfried, Peter F. Ffolliott, Leonard DeBanoand Malchus B. Baker, Jr. 2003. Forest Service watershed research in the southwest. In Proceedings: The First Interagency Conference on Research in the Watershed. October 27-30, Benson AZ.

Pase Charles P. 1962. The Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest. Pp 43-45 in Proceedings of American Society of Range Management, Arizona Section.

Pase Charles P. and Martin M. Fogel. 1967. Increasing water yield from forest, chaparral, and desert shrub in Arizona. International Conference on Water for Peace Proceedings, 2:753-764.

Pase Charles P. 1969. Survival of Quercus turbinella and Q. emoryi seedlings in an Arizona chaparral community. Southwestern Naturalist. 14:149-155.

Pase Charles P. and A.W. Lindenmuth, Jr. 1971. Effects of prescribed fire on vegetation and sediment in oak-mountain mahogany chaparral. Journal of Forestry. 69:800-805.

Pase Charles P. and Carl E. Granfelt. 1977. The use of fire on Arizona rangelands. Arizona Interagency Range Committee Publication. No.4. 15p.

Pinkava D.J., Tim Reeves, Elinor Lehto and L.A. McGill. 1979. Plants new to Arizona flora – VII: Chromosome counts and new distributional records of noteworthy species. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. 14(2):37-38.

Pond, Floyd W. and Dwight R. Cable. 1960. Effects of heat treatment on sprout production of some shrubs of chaparral in central Arizona. Journal of Range Management. 13(6):313-317.

Pond, Floyd W. 1964. Response of grasses, forbs, and half-shrubs to chemical: control of chaparral in central Arizona. Journal of Range Management. 17:200-203.

Pond, Floyd W. 1976. Growth, development and nutritive value of some Arizona chaparral species. PhD. Dissertation University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

Price, Raymond. 1957. Watershed management research in Arizona conducted by the U.S. Forest Service. Arizona Watershed Program Proceedings, September 23rd. 1:5-10.

Price, Raymond. 1958. Watershed management research in the southwest: A literature review. Presented at: American Forestry Association’s 83rd Annual Meeting, Tucson, AZ, October 27-30. 33 p.

Price, Raymond. 1962. Increasing water yield through research. Western Forestry Conference Proceedings. 53: 54-57.

Quinn, Joyce, A. 1993. “easonal precipitation regions and estimation of 30-year means for Arizona weather stations. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 27:33-48.

Ransome, Frederick L. 1916. Some Paleozoic section in Arizona and their correlation. Pp 133-166 in USGS Professional Paper 98-K.

Reynolds Hudson G. 1959. Current watershed management research by the U.S. Forest Service in Arizona. Arizona Watershed Symposium Proceedings, September 21st. 3:63-93.

Reynolds, Hudson G. and George E. Glendening. 1959. Research in management of chaparral lands. Arizona Cattlelog 14(12)13-16.

Reynolds Hudson G. 1960. Vegetation management for water yield. Pp 21-33 in Proceedings of the Fifth Annual New Mexico Water Conference: Watershed Management. November 1-2. New Mexico State University, Albuquerque, NM.

Reynolds, Hudson G. 1967. Chemical constituents and deer use of some crown sprouts in Arizona chaparral. Journal of Forestry. 65:905-908.

Reynolds Hudson G., Warren P. Clary and Peter F. Ffolliott. 1970. Gamble oak for southwestern wildlife. Journal of Forestry. 68(9):545-547.

Rich, Lowell R. 1951. Consumptive use of water by forest and range vegetation. American Society of Civil Engineering. 77:974-990.

Rich, Lowell R. 1952. Forest and range vegetation. American Society of Civil Engineering. 117:974-990.

Rich, L. R. 1956. Relation of plant cover to watershed management. Arizona Cattlelog 12(12):34-36.

Rich, L. R. 1959. Hydrologic research using Lysimeters of undisturbed soil blocks. In: Symposium of Hannoversch-Muenden Vol. II. Lysimeters. International Association of Scientific Hydrology Publications 49:139-145.

Rich, Lowell R. 1960. Water yields from the brush and oak-woodland region of Arizona. Pp 28-38 in Symposium Proceedings: Water Yield in Relation to Environment in the Southwestern United States. 36th Annual Meeting of the Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. May 3rd.

Rich, Lowell R. 1960. Preliminary effects of forest tree removal on water yield and sedimentation. Proceedings of the Arizona Watershed Symposium. September 21. 4:13-16.

Rich, Lowell R. and Hudson G. Reynold. 1963. Grazing in relation to runoff and erosion on some chaparral watershed of central Arizona. Journal of Range Management. 16:322-326.

Rich, Lowell R. 1965. Water yields resulting from treatments allied to mixed conifer watersheds. Pp 12-15 in Proceedings of the Arizona Watershed Symposium. September, 22.

Rich, Lowell R. 1972. Managing a ponderosa pine forest in increase water yield. Water Resources Research. 8:422-428.

Rich, Lowell R. and Gerald J. Gottfried. 1976. Water yields resulting from treatments on the Workman Creek Experimental Watersheds in central Arizona. Water Resources Research. 12:1053-1060.

Rothacher, Jack. 1965. Experimental Watersheds used as a research tool by the Forest Service. Notes on Unit Source Watershed Conference. St. Louis MO, February 16-19. 16 p.

Shride, A.F. 1969. Asbestos. Pp 303-311 in Mineral and Water Resources of Arizona. The Arizona Bureau of Mines, Bulletin 180.

Silver Leon T. 1960. Age determinations on precambrian diabase differentiates in the Sierra Ancha, Gila County, Arizona. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 71(12):1973-1974.

Skyes, Glenton C. 1936. Types of rock-wire check dams in general use in the Southwest. USDA Forest Service, Research Note No 2. Southwestern Forest and Range Experiment Station, Tucson, AZ.

Skyes, Glenton C. 1938. The relation of infiltration to streamflow on a Southwestern mountain watershed. USDA Forest Service, Research Note No 41. Southwestern Forest and Range Experiment Station, Tucson, AZ.

Smith, C.F., F.C. Boner, R.G. Davis, N.R. Duet and P.D. Rigas. 1993. Water resource data for Arizona: Water year 1992. USGS, Water-Data Report AZ-92-1.

Smith, C.F., D.W. Anning, N.R. Duet, G.G. Fisk, H.F. McCormack, G.L. Pope, P.D. Rigas and B.L. Wallace. 1995. Water resource data for Arizona: Water year1994. USGS, Water-Data Report AZ-94-1.

Smith, C.F., N.R. Duet, G.G. Fisk, H.F. McCormack, C.K. Partin, G.L. Pope, P.D. Rigas and S. Tadayon. 1996. Water resource data for Arizona: Water year 1995. USGS, Water-Data Report AZ-95-1.

Smith, C.F., N.R. Duet, G.G. Fisk, H.F. McCormack, C.K. Partin, G.L. Pope, and P.D. Rigas. 1997. Water resource data for Arizona: Water year1996. USGS, Water-Data Report AZ-96-1.

Smith, Howard V. 1945. The climate of Arizona. Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin No. 197. University of Arizona, Tucson AZ.

Solomon, Rhey M., Peter F. Ffolliott, Malchus B. Baker, Jr., Gerald J. Gottfried, and J.R. Thompson. 1975. Snowmelt runoff efficiencies on Arizona watersheds. Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, Research Report 274.

Solomon, Rhey M. and Larry J. Schmidt. 1981. Water yield opportunities on National Forest Lands in Arizona. Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest 11:19-27.

Tadayon S., N.R. Duet, G.G. Fisk, H.F. McCormack, G.L. Pope, and P.D. Rigas. 1998. Water resource data for Arizona: Water year1997. USGS, Water-Data Report AZ-97-1.

Tadayon S., N.R. Duet, G.G. Fisk, H.F. McCormack, C.K. Partin, G.L. Pope, and P.D. Rigas. 1999. Water resource data for Arizona: Water year 1998. USGS, Water-Data Report AZ-98-1.

Tadayon S., N.R. Duet, G.G. Fisk, H.F. McCormack, C.K. Partin, G.L. Pope, and P.D. Rigas. 2000. Water resource data for Arizona: Water year 1999. USGS, Water-Data Report AZ-99-1.

Tadayon S., N.R. Duet, G.G. Fisk, H.F. McCormack, C.K. Partin, G.L. Pope, and P.D. Rigas. 2001. Water resource data for Arizona: Water year 2000. USGS, Water-Data Report AZ-00-1.

Tecle, Aregai. 1991. Hydrology and watershed management in southwestern ponderosa pine forests. Chapter 5 in Aregai Tecle and W. Wallace Covington (tech. eds.) Multiresource management of southwestern ponderosa pine forests: The status of knowledge. USDA Forest Service, Southwestern Region.

Thorud, David B. and Peter F. Ffolliott. 1971. The 1970 Labor Day Storm. Arizona Watershed Symposium Proceedings, September 22nd. Phoenix, AZ. 15:46-55.

Thorud, David B. and Peter F. Ffolliott. 1973. A Comprehensive analysis of a major storm and associated flooding in Arizona. University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station, Technical Bulletin 202, 30 p.

Thompson, J.R. 1974. Water yield research in Arizona’s mixed conifer forests. Arizona Watershed Symposium Proceedings, September 25th. Phoenix, AZ. 18:15-17.

USDA Forest Service. 1932. Parker Creek Experimental Forest. Unpublished Establishment Report. 9 p.

USDA Forest Service. 1938. Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest. Unpublished Establishment Report. 13 p.

U.S. Forest Service. 1947. Watershed research aids Salt River Valley. USDA, Forest Service, Southwestern Forest and Range Experiment Station. Unnumbered Publ. 12 p.

USDA Forest Service. 1948. The Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest: Tour notes. USDA Forest Service, Southwestern Forest and Range Experiment Station. Mimeo. Report. 12 p

USDA Forest Service. 1953. The Sierra Ancha experimental watersheds. USDA Forest Service, Unnumbered Publication, Southwestern Forest and Range Experiment Station, Tucson, AZ.

USDA Forest Service. 1955. Forest Products Laboratory and Regional Forest and Range Experiment Stations. USDA Forest Service, Washington Office, Washington, D.C.

USDA Forest Service. 1956. Range management research. 1955 Annual Report. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

USDA Forest Service. 1956. Watershed management research. 1955 Annual Report. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

USDA Forest Service. 1957. Watershed management research. 1956 Annual Report. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

USDA Forest Service. 1958. Range management research. 1957 Annual Report. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

USDA Forest Service. 1958. Watershed management research. 1957 Annual Report. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

USDA Forest Service. 1959. Watershed management research. 1958 Annual Report. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

USDA Forest Service. 1959. Range management research. 1958 Annual Report. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

USDA Forest Service. 1962. Watershed management research. 1961 Annual Report. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

USDA Forest Service. 1963. Watershed management research. 1962 Annual Report. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

USDA Forest Service. 1964. Watershed management research. 1963 Annual Report. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

USDA Forest Service. 1967. Watershed management research. Research Highlights, 1966 Annual Report. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

USDA Forest Service. 1968. Range management and wildlife habitat research. Forestry Research Highlights, 1967 Annual Report. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

USDA Forest Service. 1968. Watershed management research. Forestry Research Highlights, 1967 Annual Report. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

USDA Forest Service. 1970. Understanding the forest and range environment. Forestry Research Highlights 1969. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

USDA Forest Service. 1970. Chaparral vegetation type. Division of Range and Wildlife, Southwestern Region, USDA Forest Service.

USDA Forest Service. 1970. Hydrologic diversity in Arizona. Unpublished report on file with the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station, Flagstaff, Arizona. 7 p.

USDA Forest Service. 1971. Range management. Forestry Research Highlights 1970. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

USDI Bureau of Reclamation. 1969. Water resource development, Part III. In Mineral and Water Resources of Arizona. The Arizona Bureau of Mines, Bulletin 180.

Ward, Tim J. 1995. Investigation of the Sierra Ancha watersheds with respect to adjustable channel morphology. Unpublished report on file with the Rocky Mountain Research Station, Flagstaff, AZ.

Wenrich, Karen J., William L. Chenoweth, Warren I. Finch and Robert B. Scarborough. 1989. Uranium in Arizona. Arizona Geological Society Digest 18:759-794.

Wessels, Rick L. 1990. Re-evaluation of the Slate Creek shear zone: Structure of early proterozoic rocks, Northern Sierra Ancha, Gila County, Arizona. Master Thesis. Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ.

Whitfield, C. J. 1933. Factors influencing vegetation in the Sierra Ancha Region of central Arizona. USDA Forest Service, Southwestern Forest and Range Experiment Station (Typed Report.) 43 p.

Wilson, Eldred D. 1962. A resume of the geology of Arizona. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 104 p.

Wilson, Richard P. and W.B. Garret. 1989. Water resource data for Arizona: Water year 1987. USGS, Water-Data Report AZ-87-1.

Wrucke Chester T., James K. Otton and George Desborough. 1986. Summary and origin of the mineral commodities in the middle proterozoic Apache group in central Arizona. Arizona Geological Society Digest 16:12-17.

Young, Debroah and Malchus B. Baker, Jr. 1998. Management of semi-arid watersheds: Technology transfer. Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest 28:81-83.

Publications Being Added to TreeSearch

Bellsey, Robert L. and David Mount. 1996. “Analysis of Rumex orthoneurus, a rare species in Arizona, using RAPD markers and polymorohisms in rbcL” pp. 60-67 In Maschinski, Joyce H. David Hammond and Louella Holter (tech eds.) Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plants: Proceedings of the Second Conference, Flagstaff AZ, September 11-14, 1995. General Technical Report RM-GTR-283. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Brown, Harry E., Malchus B. Baker, Jr., James J. Rogers, Warren P. Clary, J.L. Kovner, Frederic R. Larson, Charles C. Avery, and Ralph E. Campbell. 1974. Opportunities for Increasing Water Yields and other Multiple Use Values on Ponderosa Pine Forest Lands, USDA Forest Service Research Paper RM-129. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service USDA Fort Collins, CO.

Brown, Thomas C., Paul F. O’Connell, and Alden R. Hibbert. 1974. Chaparral conversion in Arizona. Part II: An Economic Analysis. USDA Forest Service Research Paper RM-127. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service USDA Fort Collins, CO.

Brown, David E. and Charles H. Lowe. 1980. A digitized systematic classification for ecosystem with an illustrated summary of the natural vegetation of North America. USDA General Technical Report RM-73.

Cable, Dwight W. 1975. Range management in the chaparral type and its ecological basis: The status of our knowledge. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper RM-155.

Carmichael, Robert S., Oren D. Knipe, Charles P. Pase and W.W. Brady. 1978. Arizona Chaparral: Plant Associations and Ecology. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Paper RM-202.

Ffolliott, Peter F. 1990. “Opportunities for fire management in the future.” In: J.S. Krammes (tech. coordinator) Proceedings of a Conference on the Effects of Fire Management of Southwestern Natural Resources. USDA Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Report RM-191. 152-167.

Garcia, R.M. and Charles P. Pase. 1967. Moisture-retention capacity of litter under two Arizona chaparral communities. USDA Forest Service Research Note RM-85.

Gottfried Gerald J. 1980. Control of New Mexican locust and the effect on planted ponderosa pine in central Arizona. USDA Forest Service Research Note RM-386.

Gottfried Gerald J. and David R. Patton. 1984. Pocket gopher food habits on two disturbed forest sites in central Arizona. USDA Forest Service Research Paper RM-255.

Hawksworth Frank G., Ed F. Wicker and Robert F. Scharf. 1977. Fungal parasites of dwarf mistletoes. USDA Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-36.

Hibbert, Alden R., Edwin A. Davis and David G. Scholl. 1974. Chaparral conversion. Part I: Water yield response and effects on other resources. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper RM-126.

Hibbert, Alden R. 1979. Managing vegetation to increase flow in the Colorado River Basin. USDA Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-66.

Hibbert, Alden R. and Gerald J. Gottfried. 1987. “Streamflow responses to forest treatments on two Arizona mixed conifer watersheds.” In: Troendle, C.A., M.R. Kaufmann, R.H. Hamre and R.P. Winokur (tech cords.) Management of subalpine forest: building on 50 years of research; 1987 July 6-9; Silver Creek CO. p. 189-194. USDA Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Report RM-149.

Ingebo, Paul A. and Alden R. Hibbert. 1974. Runoff and erosion after brush suppression on the Natural Drainages watersheds in central Arizona. USDA Forest Service, Research Note RM-275.

Moir, William H. and John A. Ludwig. 1979. A Classification of Spruce-fir and mixed conifer habitat types of Arizona and New Mexico. Rocky Mountain Research Paper RM-207.

Morrison, Micheal L., Paul R. Krausman, Maite Sureda and Lisa M. Fox. 1997. Literature on Wildlife Research in the Madrean Archipelago: 1800s – 1994 USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Fort Collins CO: General Technical Report RM-GTR-290.

Muldavin , Esteban H., Robert L. DeVelice and Frank Ronco, Jr. 1996. A Classification of Forest Habitat Types Southern Arizona and Portions of the Colorado Plateau General Technical Report RM-GTR-287. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Pase Charles P. and G.E. Glendening 1965. Reduction of litter and shrub crowns by planned fall burning of oak-mountainmahogany chaparral. USDA Forest Service Research Note RM-49.

Pase Charles P. and R. Roy Johnson. 1968. Flora and Vegetation of the Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest, Arizona. USDA Forest Service Research Paper RM-41.

Pase Charles P. 1972. Litter production by oak-mountainmahogany chaparral in central Arizona. USDA Forest Service Research Note RM-214.

Phillips, Barbara G., Ronald Popowski, Clark Franz and Peter Warren. 1996. “Conservation Assessment and Strategy for Cimicifuga Arizonica Watson (Arizona Bugbane) on the Coconino and Kaibab National Forests” pp. 213-218 In Maschinski, Joyce H. David Hammond and Louella Holter (tech eds.) Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plants: Proceedings of the Second Conference, Flagstaff AZ, September 11-14, 1995. General Technical Report RM-GTR-283. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Pieper, Rex D. and Roger D. Wittie. 1990. “Fire effects in Southwestern chaparral and pinyon-juniper vegetation.” Pp 87-93 In: J.S. Krammes (tech. coordinator) Proceedings of a Conference on the Effects of Fire Management of Southwestern Natural Resources. USDA Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Report RM-191.

Pond, Floyd W. 1971. Chaparral: 47 years later. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper RM-69.

Pond, Floyd W. and Henry A. Pearson. 1970. Storage does not affect crude protein content of forage samples. USDA Forest Service, Research Note RM-160.

Hudson G. and R.R. Johnson. 1964. Habitat relations of vertebrates of the Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper RM-4.

Rich, Lowell R. and J.R. Thompson. 1974. Watershed management in Arizona’s mixed conifer forests: The status of our knowledge. Rocky Mountain Research Paper RM-130.

Schubert, Gilbert H. and John A. Pitcher. 1973. A provisional tree seed-zone and cone-crop rating system for Arizona and New Mexico. USDA Forest Service Research Paper RM-105. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service USDA Fort Collins, CO.

Short, Henry L. 1979. Deer in Arizona and New Mexico: Their ecology and a theory explaining recent population decreases. USDA Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-70.

Older U.S. Forest Serivce Publications (Not in Treesearch)

Gary, Howard L., and Lowell R. Rich. 1961. Nitrogen aids plant growth on Arizona soils derived from granite and diabase. USDA Forest Service Research Note No.57, 2 p. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

Reynolds, Rich, Lowell R. 1961. Surface runoff and erosion in the lower chaparral zone- Arizona. USDA Forest Service, Station Paper No. 66. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Ft. Collins, CO. 18 pp.

Rich, Lowell R., Hudson G. Reynold and J.M. West 1961. The Workman Creek experimental watershed. USDA Forest Service, Station Paper No. 65. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Ft. Collins, CO.

Rich, Lowell R. 1962. Erosion and sediment movement following a wildfire in a ponderosa pine forest of central Arizona. USDA Forest Service, Research Note No. 76. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Ft. Collins, CO.

 

Ecological Information

Precipitation averages about 33 inches (850 mm) at the higher elevations at Workman's Creek, 25 inches (635 mm) at the intermediate elevations (4,790 to 6,004 feet; 1,460 to 1,830 m) surrounding the headquarters, and 16 inches (410 mm) at the lower elevations.

Geology of the range is complex, with sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks uplifted in a dome-like structure. Thick formations of Dripping Springs quartzite — dissected by deep canyons or with intrusions of diabase, basalt plugs, and sills — are common in much of the forest. Troy sandstone occurs at higher elevations.

Researchers have identified eight plant types on the Sierra Ancha, listed in order of the elevation at which they are found (high to low): mixed conifer, mountain park, ponderosa pine, chaparral, oak woodland, desert grassland, desert shrub, and riparian. Chaparral shrubs cover 57 percent of the forest.

Research – Historical and Present

Experimental Watersheds

Scientists conducting research on the Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest.
Scientists conducting research on the Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest.
Research studies on watershed management problems in woodlands, chaparral, ponderosa pine, and pine-fir forests were conducted on the sites that ranged in size from several square meters to complete watersheds comprising several thousand hectares. The Sierra Ancha is still maintained as a research site under the administration of the Rocky Mountain Research Station.

Many of the earlier watershed studies have been concluded and the results published. Currently, only one stream gauge is maintained for collecting long-term hydrologic data. More information on Sierra Ancha watershed research is available here through the RMRS Air, Water, and Aquatic Environments Program.

The website Managing Arid and Semi-Arid Watersheds provides a plethora of information on experimental watersheds in Arizona, including historic flow data, GIS maps, and general description. The watersheds in the Sierra Ancha are just one of many of these experimental watersheds in Arizona.

Monitoring Effects of Air Pollution

The International Co-operative Program on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP) was launched in 1985 under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe due to the growing public awareness of possible adverse effects of air pollution on forests.

ICP monitors the forest condition in Europe, in cooperation with the European Union using two different monitoring intensity levels. The first grid (called Level I) is based on around 6000 observation plots on a systematic transnational grid of 16 x 16 km throughout Europe. The intensive monitoring level comprises around 800 Level II plots in selected forest ecosystems in Europe. Currently 41 countries participate in the ICP Forests.

In 2007, the U.S. Forest Service set up a synthesis network of 18 sites throughout the U.S., including the Sierra Ancha, with an ICP Level II platform at each site. Each site will include a NADP weather station, UV Radiation Monitors and Ozone Sensors. The Sierra Ancha EF was chosen to be part of this network because it is the most southern Experimental Forest in the contiguous US and because it is downwind from Phoenix, one of the nation's largest metropolitan areas.

For more information, see Monitoring the effects of air-quality on forests: An overview of the Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest ICP-Level II Site.

Long-term Monitoring and Data

  • Sierra Ancha climate data — Monthly and daily climate data from 2000-2011 for the Experimental Forest

  • SNOTEL — The Natural Resources Conservation Service installs, operates, and maintains an extensive, automated system to collect snowpack and related climatic data in the Western United States, including up-to-date precipitation and snow data for Workman Creek.

  • Parker Creek flow data from USGS — Up-to-date flow data from Parker Creek as it flows out of the Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest.

  • Historical photographs — Historical photographs of research at Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest in Arizona, including research techniques, locations of sample plots, harvesting methods, climatological equipment, diseases, planting, and other factors impacting a forest. Repeat photo series contain information of environmental changes over time.

  • Historical hydrology flow data

  • Sierra Ancha EF Publications — An annotated bibliography of publications on the Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest

  • Managing Arid and Semi-Arid Watersheds — Historic flow data, GIS maps, and general descriptions of experimental watersheds in Arizona.