Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are native to much of the Pacific Northwest, and although the species remains widely distributed, population declines prompted listing under the Endangered Species Act in 1999. As part of the recovery process, monitoring of bull trout populations for determination of status and trend is required. Within the Forest Service, a similar impetus for monitoring exists because bull trout are a "Management Indicator Species." The extensive lands managed by the Forest Service require monitoring that can be applied rapidly and inexpensively, yet provide powerful and accurate trend detection. Monitoring has traditionally focused on tracking site level abundance, but this approach is costly and is being replaced by monitoring focusing on assessing temporal patterns of occurrence within suitable habitats. This requires less intense sampling at individual sites, which makes it possible to sample larger and more representative areas relevant to land management.