These data document vegetation structure (trees, shrubs, and ground cover), composition of trees and shrubs (in most cases, ground cover is differentiated by functional group but not by species), and presence or absence of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in canyons throughout four mountain ranges in the central Great Basin (Lander, Nye, and Eureka counties, Nevada): the Shoshone Mountains, Toiyabe Range, Toquima Range, and Monitor Range. Vegetation data were collected between 2002 and 2013 at locations where annual point-counts of breeding birds were conducted or at the ends of 100-meter transects along which we searched for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) scats. Data on presence or absence of cheatgrass were gathered annually from 2006 through 2014. We measured vegetation structure and composition at each location in at least two years. The year in which vegetation structure and composition first was measured at a given location varied; vegetation structure and composition was remeasured at virtually all locations in 2013. Vegetation structure and composition generally was measured more frequently at locations that were treated with prescribed fire or wildfire, or that served as controls for studies on responses of plants and animals to fire, than at other locations.