The Prescribed Fire Combustion and Atmospheric Dynamics Research Experiment (RxCADRE) was designed to collect atmospheric, fuels, fire behavior, energy balance, emissions, and fire effects data to advance fire models and further our understanding of smoke emissions. This dataset covers 3 operational prescribed fires ignited at Eglin Air Force Base in 2012 as part of the RxCADRE research project. The fires were 2 grass fires, named L1G and L2G, and 1 sub-forest-canopy surface fire, named L2F. This data publication contains smoke emissions and dispersion measurements for the RxCADRE burns L1G, L2G, and L2F, which were conducted on November 4, 10, and 11 of 2012, respectively. The data consists of continuous (2 second) concentration measurements of the smoke constituents: CO2, CO, CH4, and water vapor. The measurements were taken from an airborne platform before, during, and after the fires between elevations of 140 and 2860 meters above mean sea level and at distances of 0 to 25 kilometers from the burn units.