RMRS-RN-11WWW: Hosts and Geographic Distribution of Arceuthobium oxycedr

Results: Near East
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Arceuthobium oxycedri is reported from the Near East countries of Turkey (Table 12), Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, and Iran (Table 13). Host species include Juniperus drupacea, J. excelsa, J. foetidissima, J. oxycedrus, and J. sabina (Hawksworth and Wiens 1996; Miller 1982; Mouterde 1966; Parsa 1947; Townsend 1980) (Table 1).


Four species of juniper, Juniperus excelsa, J. foetidissima, J. oxycedrus, and J. phoenicea, and one cypress, Cupressus sempervirens, are known to occur on the eastern Mediterranean island of Cyprus (Sfikas 1998). Discussions with representatives of the Forest Departments of both Greek and Turkish Cyprus and examination of records in the herbarium of the Turkish Cypriot Alevkaya Forest Station by one of the authors (W.M. Ciesla) indicate that there are no records of the occurrence of Arceuthobium oxycedri from Cyprus. Moreover, casual observations of extensive forests of Juniperus phoenicea on the Karpas Peninsula and of J. foetidissima near the summit of Mt. Olympus in the Trodos Massif failed to reveal the presence of A. oxycedri.


Arceuthobium oxycedri is widespread in Turkey (Boissier 1879; Hawksworth and Wiens 1996; Miller 1982; Turrill 1920). Sites located on maps are summarized in Table 12 and Map 8.

Some confusion arises because many old collections identify locations in "Turkey" meaning the Ottoman Empire, which included portions of the Balkans, Caucasus, and Near East. For example, reference to a 1911 collection from "Insula Thasos" listed under Turkey by Hawksworth and Wiens (1996) undoubtedly refers to the Greek island of Thasos (see section on Greece). Hawksworth and Wiens (1996) also misplace a number of sites within Turkey: Artvin and Cortuh Gorge are in Çoruh region not near Constantinople; Batman (for Bittyma) is in Bitlis region not the Bolu region; Antalya (for Antlya or Anatolia) is not clearly identified as the region where "Gombe, Sutlegen, and Yayla Cavda" are located. The name "Ak Dag" occurs often on Turkish maps and means "white mountain." At least two sites designated by this name are collection sites for A. oxycedri. Hawksworth and Wiens (1996) cite the Ak Dagliar mountains of the Antalya region. Miller (1982) and Turrrill (1920) list a site that may be either a village or mountain in the Amaysa region. Collection sites listed by Hawksworth and Wiens (1996) that could not be found are Bei at Krucevic (possibly the same site reported by Turrill 1926 and HBG as "Krucevic on the Narenta [or Neretva] River in Bosnia-Herzegovina) and District Czebiz, Bostran Cuckur. Collection sites given by Miller (1982) that could not be located include: Mermerköy, (Tekirdag region), Domusdere or Belgrad Forest (Istanbul region), and Dokhana. Miller's (1982) listing of Mermerköy could be in reference to Dermerköy, a city in European Turkey, south of the Bulgarian frontier.

Lebanon and Syria

Hawksworth and Wiens (1996) and Mouterde (1966) report Arceuthobium oxycedri from Lebanon and Syria (Table 13 and Map 8). Mouterde 1966 lists Col de Nebi-Younès and Col de Freiket for Syria. Thiebaut (1953) gives Ansarieh as a collection site; we believe this to refer to Jebel Ansariya, a mountain range near the Mediterranean Sea between Turkey and Lebanon. Turrill (1920) lists Amanus (present day Turkey), Akher Dagh (possibly Turkey), and Lebanon under Syria. Mouterde (1966) reports A. oxycedri from several sites in Lebanon on Juniperus drupacea and J. oxycedrus.


Al-Rawi (1964), Hawksworth and Wiens (1996), and Townsend (1980) report Arceuthobium oxycedri from the Al'Amadiyah (Amadiyah or Amadia District) of northern of Iraq (Table 13, Map 8). Collection sites not located are the valleys of Nazarki and Sapna (Townsend 1980).


Boissier (1879) lists several sites in northern Iran (Persia) where juniper dwarf mistletoe was collected (Table 13, Map 8). Turrill (1920) cites a collection from Oroomah, in the Kurdistan ethnic region of Iran; Hawksworth and Wiens (1996) identify the site Groomah. The present day name of this site is Orumiyeh.

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Title: RMRS-RN-11WWW: Results: Near East
Electronic Publish Date: September 2001
Last Update:
August 20, 2008