Results: Near East
Note: actual spelling available for
Arceuthobium oxycedri is reported from the Near East
countries of Turkey (Table 12),
Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, and Iran (Table
13). Host species include Juniperus drupacea, J.
excelsa, J. foetidissima, J. oxycedrus, and
J. sabina (Hawksworth and Wiens 1996; Miller 1982; Mouterde
1966; Parsa 1947; Townsend 1980) (Table
Four species of juniper, Juniperus excelsa, J. foetidissima,
J. oxycedrus, and J. phoenicea, and one cypress,
Cupressus sempervirens, are known to occur on the
eastern Mediterranean island of Cyprus (Sfikas 1998). Discussions
with representatives of the Forest Departments of both Greek
and Turkish Cyprus and examination of records in the herbarium
of the Turkish Cypriot Alevkaya Forest Station by one of the
authors (W.M. Ciesla) indicate that there are no records of the
occurrence of Arceuthobium oxycedri from Cyprus. Moreover,
casual observations of extensive forests of Juniperus phoenicea
on the Karpas Peninsula and of J. foetidissima near
the summit of Mt. Olympus in the Trodos Massif failed to reveal
the presence of A. oxycedri.
Arceuthobium oxycedri is widespread in Turkey (Boissier
1879; Hawksworth and Wiens 1996; Miller 1982; Turrill 1920).
Sites located on maps are summarized in Table
12 and Map 8.
Some confusion arises because many old collections identify
locations in "Turkey" meaning the Ottoman Empire, which
included portions of the Balkans, Caucasus, and Near East. For
example, reference to a 1911 collection from "Insula Thasos"
listed under Turkey by Hawksworth and Wiens (1996) undoubtedly
refers to the Greek island of Thasos (see section on Greece).
Hawksworth and Wiens (1996) also misplace a number of sites within
Turkey: Artvin and Cortuh Gorge are in Çoruh region not
near Constantinople; Batman (for Bittyma) is in Bitlis region
not the Bolu region; Antalya (for Antlya or Anatolia) is not
clearly identified as the region where "Gombe, Sutlegen,
and Yayla Cavda" are located. The name "Ak Dag"
occurs often on Turkish maps and means "white mountain."
At least two sites designated by this name are collection sites
for A. oxycedri. Hawksworth and Wiens (1996) cite the
Ak Dagliar mountains of the Antalya region. Miller (1982) and
Turrrill (1920) list a site that may be either a village or mountain
in the Amaysa region. Collection sites listed by Hawksworth and
Wiens (1996) that could not be found are Bei at Krucevic
(possibly the same site reported by Turrill 1926 and HBG
on the Narenta [or Neretva] River in Bosnia-Herzegovina)
and District Czebiz, Bostran Cuckur. Collection
sites given by Miller (1982) that could not be located include:
region), Domusdere or Belgrad Forest (Istanbul
region), and Dokhana. Miller's (1982) listing of Mermerköy
could be in reference to Dermerköy, a city in European Turkey,
south of the Bulgarian frontier.
Lebanon and Syria
Hawksworth and Wiens (1996) and Mouterde (1966) report Arceuthobium
oxycedri from Lebanon and Syria (Table
13 and Map 8). Mouterde 1966
lists Col de Nebi-Younès and Col de Freiket
for Syria. Thiebaut (1953) gives Ansarieh as a collection
site; we believe this to refer to Jebel Ansariya, a mountain
range near the Mediterranean Sea between Turkey and Lebanon.
Turrill (1920) lists Amanus (present day Turkey), Akher Dagh
(possibly Turkey), and Lebanon under Syria. Mouterde (1966) reports
A. oxycedri from several sites in Lebanon on Juniperus
drupacea and J. oxycedrus.
Al-Rawi (1964), Hawksworth and Wiens (1996), and Townsend
(1980) report Arceuthobium oxycedri from the Al'Amadiyah
(Amadiyah or Amadia District)
of northern of Iraq (Table 13,
Map 8). Collection sites not located
are the valleys of Nazarki and Sapna (Townsend
Boissier (1879) lists several sites in northern Iran (Persia)
where juniper dwarf mistletoe was collected (Table
13, Map 8). Turrill (1920)
cites a collection from Oroomah, in the Kurdistan ethnic region
of Iran; Hawksworth and Wiens (1996) identify the site Groomah.
The present day name of this site is Orumiyeh.