Results: Russia and
Other Former Soviet Republics
As in the Balkans, the regions of Crimea (Ukraine), the Caucasus
(Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Russia), and Turkestan (present
day Central Asian republics of Kyrgystan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan,
and Uzbekistan) have experienced significant political re-organization
with the dissolution of first the Russian and Turkish empires
and recently the Soviet Union. Moreover, translations of place
names from the original Cyrillic alphabet into English often
appear under different spellings on maps published in western
Arceuthobium oxycedri has long been known from numerous
hosts in Crimea, the Caucasus, and Turkestan. Reported native
and exotic hosts (Table 1 and
Table 2) are Juniperus excelsa
Bieb., J. oblonga Knight & Perry, J. oxycedrus,
J. pseudosabina Fisher & Meyer, J. sabina L.,
J. semiglobosa Regel, J. thurifera L., J. polycarpos,
J. virginiana L., Chamaecyparis funebris Endlicher,
Cupressus arizonica, C. lusitanica Mill., C.
lusitanica var. benthamii, C. macnabiana A. Murry,
C. macrocarpa Gordon, and Platycladus orientalis
(Botschantev 1953; Fataliev 1987; Hawksworth and Wiens 1996;
Isikov 1986; Isikov and Zaharenko 1988; Lazarev and Grigorov
1980; Ovchinnikov 1968; Zefirov 1955).
Significant populations of juniper mistletoe occur in the
mountains of Crimea (Table 11,
Map 8) on Juniperus oxycedrus
and on relict populations of J. excelsa (Lazarev and Grigorov
1980). Hawksworth and Wiens (1996) report collections from Taura.
This name apparently refers to the Taurians, the name of a civilization
that occupied Crimea 3000 years ago and is an old name for part
of the Crimean Peninsula. Other reports cite the region as Jaltensis,
Yalta, and Sudak. Lazarev and Grigorov (1980) identify specific
locations at the Batlliman Natural Preserve, Cape
Martyan area, Livadij (perhaps same as Lyasni
reported by Voronihin 1908), and Yaltinsk Mountain Forest
Reserve (elevation 400500 m). Turrill (1920) adds Mt.
Pertsch as a collection site. Interest and attention over
the juniper mistletoe continues in this region due to recent
work by Isikov (1986) and Iskov and Zakhareno (1988).
Collection sites for A. oxycedri in Russia are confined
to a narrow strip of land between the Black Sea and the Caucuses
Mountains and include Tamanskij Bay, Anapa, Novorriysk, Marykh
Pass, North Ossetia, and Avarsky Koisu (Dagestan) (Kaupush and
Tavasiev 1979; Voronihin 1908) (Table
11, Map 8).
Caucasus--Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia
There are reports of Arceuthobium oxycedri from the
Caucasus region by Kaupush and Tavasiev (1979) and Voronihin
(1908), from Armenia by Hawksworth and Wiens (1996) and Takhtadijan
(1973), from Azerbaijan by Fataliev (1987), and from Georgia
by Turrill (1920) (Table 11,
Map 8 and Map
Takhtadijan (1973) describes the distribution of plants in
Armenia by 12 floristic provinces and reports the occurrence
of Arceuthobium oxycedri in low to medium elevation zones
in three of these provinces: Idjevan in northeastern Armenia,
Erevan in the southwest, and Zangezur in the south (Map
9). Reported hosts are J. oblonga and J. sabina.
Other reported collection sites from Armenia are Ritzagadsch
(Turrill 1920) and "Rossiea Siedlitz Riltzagash"
(Hawksworth and Wiens 1996). Rossiea may be a reference
to Russia; Siedlitz may be the name of botanist who made
this collection. The site Alliper Dagh given by Hawksworth
and Wiens (1996) could be a reference to Alidag, a 3135 m mountain
south of Kars and north of the Aras River in what is today eastern
Turkey (Map 8).
The collection site Elizavetpolskii Creek reported by Voronihin
(1908) is near the community known presently as Ganca in northern
Azerbaijan (Map 8). This community
was originally known as Ganja; it was renamed Elizavetpol by
the Russians and later called Kirovabad. Today it appears on
maps under various alternative spellings including Gonja, Gyanja,
and Gäncä (Allen and Muratoff 1953).
Central Asia--Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgystan, and Tajikistan
Portions of the central Asian countries are located in the
western Himalayas and contain extensive juniper forests (Figure 2). Arceuthobium oxycedri
collection sites are reported by Botschantev (1953); Hawksworth
and Wiens (1996), Ovchinnikov (1968), and Voronihin (1908) (Table 11, Map
10). Locations not found include: Burogan River,
Kusavli Sai, and Mausarif (Ovchinnikov 1968);
and Mossarif (Voronihin 1908). The latter two collections
may refer to Mazar-I-Sharif, a large city in northern Afghanistan
(Map 11) near the border of Uzbekistan.