This science area helps AWAE researchers understand how ecosystems respond to various pressures and in what situations these pressures result in tipping points or thresholds where the status changes in an undesirable and irreversible way. It will help us understand how to maintain and restore resilient landscape under a changing climate. It involves integrating knowledge discovery and development, modeling, and syntheses to create adaptive management strategies to help maximize and sustain ecosystem and landscape integrity, function, and resilience into the future. This also means it will integrate information on the effects of multiple interacting stressors on species, populations, landscapes and ecosystems and utilize plant, animal, and vegetation ecology, entomology, pathology, genetics, soils, remote sensing, and monitoring information.
This sub-element will develop, synthesize, and deliver a framework for incorporating knowledge to help with understanding and quantifying long term, interactive, and cumulative effects to develop adaptive management strategies. This incorporates information on climate change, fire, invasives, insect and disease, sensitive species, human-environment landscape, disturbance/stressors, land use, and management objectives for decision-making. Examples of related AWAE research includes: Estimating Valley Confinement, Climate Change Effects on Stream Temperatures and Thermal Habitat
This sub-element will develop vegetation treatment strategies, techniques, and silvicultural prescriptions, assessments, and management to maximize and sustain landscape and ecosystem resilience and reduce negative restoration impacts (damage to soil/soil crusts, etc.). It will focus on developing the basic biological knowledge of select species important for restoration efforts; understanding the successional pathways and thresholds, processes, and trajectories; understanding dynamics and relationships across spatial scales; and understanding long term, interactive, and cumulative effects. This knowledge will then be integrated into decision support tools to provide guidance on prioritizing, designing, and implementing species recover and restoration treatment and locations, and incorporate risk and adaptive management into restoration efforts. Examples of related AWAE research includes: Adaptation for Wildland Aquatic Resources
Evaluating and Predicting System Resilience
This sub-element will focus on understanding of equilibrium states and pressures, tipping points, and thresholds of the forces that control them, and how changes can create alternative states or novel ecosystems. Examples of related AWAE research includes: Species Distribution Uncertainty
Ensure the Availability of Quality Native Plants
This sub-element will develop and improve methods to ensure that native plant materials are available in sufficient supply on the landscape and the nursery. It will identify, collect, develop, test, and produce genetically appropriate plant materials well-adapted to local conditions; develop nursery procedures and seed production protocols; species selection guidelines, seed transfer zones, screening procedures for insect and disease resistance.
Understanding of the Genetic Variation and Gene Flow Across the Landscape
Provides science to understand the genetic processes and characterize patters of variation, gene flow across the landscape, and effective population size; understand and manipulate resistances, tolerances, and plasticity of both beneficial and injurious organisms under current and future environmental conditions of changing climate, exotic species invasions, and land management activities. Understand how landscape properties, like fragmentation, correlate with the genetic variation in plants/animals; explore the genetic relationship between resistance and susceptibility and genetic control of host-pathogen or herbivore relationships; identify adaptive genes in wild populations and understand the genetic-based adaptive capacity of insect and other pest populations; and develop genetic tools to predict/prevent potentially invasive forest pathogens. Initiate assisted migration research to provide guidelines. Examples of related AWAE research includes: DNA Barcoding at Riverscape Scales, Detecting Rare Species Using Environmental DNA, Understanding the diversity of Cottus (sculpins) in western North America
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