Carl J. Houtman
One Gifford Pinchot Drive
Contact Carl J. Houtman
- Biorefineries - Approximately every 30 years, the First World War, the Second World War, the Oil crisis of the 1970s, and now, interest in developing biorefineries from lignocellulose peaks. Research scientists at the Forest Products Lab advanced biorefinery technology during the 1940s and 1970s. We are continuing in this tradition by trialing several biorefinery concepts on the pilot scale. The engineering data from our trials are incorporated into economic models that allow use to evaluate the probability of success for biorefineries connected to a paper mill. We are also currently working with several paper companies in an effort to evaluate opportunities for biorefineries at particular mills.
- PSAs - Pressure sensitive adhesives are used in everything from shipping containers to postage stamps. We are reducing the negative environmental impact of PSA use by developing recycling compatible adhesives that are made from renewable materials. Beginning with sponsorship by the US Postal Service, we developed testing methods to determine if an adhesive is likely to cause problems in a paper recycling mill. Working with adhesive suppliers we have assisted in the development of PSAs that pass our test methods. We now are incorporating non-petrochemical monomers into new PSA formulations that will allow them to be biodegraded.
- Fungus - Fungi orchestrate a complex set of enzymes to degrade lignocellulose. In many cases the transformations caused by the fungi are similar to unit operation required for biorefineries. We probe the detailed mechanism of fungal action using the methods of polymer science, chemical analysis, and reaction engineering.
- Integrate biorefineries into pulp mill operations
- Estimate economic performance of various lignocellulose processes
- Understand the mechanisms of fungal decay using engineering analysis
- Develop recycling-compatible and sustainable pressure sensitive adhesives
- University of Minnesota, B.C.E. Chemical Engineering 1983
- University of Minnesota, M.S. Chemical Engineering 1985
- University of Delaware, Ph.D. Chemical Engineering 1990
- Institut de Catalyse, Lyon, France, Postdoctoral Chemical Engineering 1991
- American Chemical Society (ACS), Member
- Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI), Member
Featured Publications & Products
- Wei, Dongsheng; Houtman, Carl J.; Kapich, Alexander N.; Hunt, Christopher G.; Cullen, Daniel; Hammel, Kenneth E. 2010. Laccase and its role in production of extracellular reactive oxygen species during wood decay by the brown rot basidiomycete Postia placenta.
- Zhang, Jiguang; Dubay, Matthew R.; Houtman, Carl J.; Severtson, Steven J. 2009. Sulfonated amphiphilic block copolymers : synthesis, self-assembly in water, and application as stabilizer in emulsion polymerization.
- Xu, Guizhen H.; Dong, Jinping; Severtson, Steven J.; Houtman, Carl J.; Gwin, Larry E. 2009. Modifications of surfactant distributions and surface morphologies in latex films due to moisture exposure.
- Houtman, Carl; Scallon, Karen; Oldack, Richard. 2008. Validation of laboratory-scale recycling test method of paper PSA label products.
- Guo, Jihui; Severtson, Steven J.; Gwin, Larry E.; Houtman, Carl J. 2008. Effect of amphiphilic additives on the behavior of water-based acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives during paper recycling.
- Vahey, David W.; Zhu, JunYong ; Houtman, Carl J. 2009. Method and System for Measuring Optical Properties of Scattering and Absorbing Materials.
- Akhtar, Masood ; Swaney, Ross E.; Horn, Eric G.; Lentz, Michael J.; Scott, Gary M.; Black, Cory C. ; Houtman, Carl J.; Kirk, T.K. . 2007. Method for Producing Pulp.
- Moore, Roderquita; Gleisner, Roland; Houtman, Carl. 2021. Biodegradability of Lactide Caprolactone Macromonomers in Wastewater.
- Novy, Vera ; Nielsen, Fredrik ; Cullen, Daniel ; Sabat, Grzegorz ; Houtman, Carl J.; Hunt, Christopher G. 2021. The characteristics of insoluble softwood substrates affect fungal morphology, secretome composition, and hydrolytic efficiency of enzymes produced by Trichoderma reesei.
- Houtman, Carl ; Aziz, Salman ; De Jong, Robert ; Doshi, Mahendra . 2020. A novel unit operation to remove hydrophobic contaminants.
- Zelinka, Samuel ; Houtman, Carl J.; Hirth, Kolby ; Lacher, Steven ; Lorenz, Linda ; Engelund Thybring, Emil ; Hunt, Christopher G. 2020. The effect of acetylation on iron uptake and diffusion in water saturated wood cell walls and implications for decay.
- Tang, Yanan ; Geng, Shengfang ; Houtman, Carl ; Wu, Shubin . 2019. Size distribution analysis of microstickies treated by enzyme mixtures in papermaking whitewater.
- Doshi, Mahendra ; Aziz, Salman ; De Jong, Robert ; Houtman, Carl . 2018. Effect of pulper consistency on stickies size distribution.
- Houtman, Carl J.; Maligaspe, Eranda ; Hunt, Christopher G.; Fernández-Fueyo, Elena ; Martínez, Angel T.; Hammel, Kenneth E. 2018. Fungal lignin peroxidase does not produce the veratryl alcohol cation radical as a diffusible ligninolytic oxidant.
- Houtman, Carl . 2018. Lessons learned from 150 years of pulping wood.
- de Assis, Camilla Abbati; Houtman, Carl; Phillips, Richard; Bilek, E.M. Ted; Rojas, Orlando J.; Pal, Lokendra; Peresin, Maria Soledad; Jameel, Hasan; Gonzalez, Ronalds. 2017. Conversion economics of forest biomaterials: risk and financial analysis of CNC manufacturing.
- Alonso, David Martin; Hakim, Sikander H.; Zhou, Shengfei ; Won, Wangyun ; Hosseinaei, Omid ; Tao, Jingming ; Garcia-Negron, Valerie ; Montagamwala, Ali Hussain; Mellmer, Max A.; Huang, Kefeng ; Houtman, Carl J.; Labbe, Nicole ; Harper, David P.; Maravelias, Christos; Runge, Troy ; Dumesic, James A. 2017. Increasing the revenue from lignocellulosic biomass: maximizing feedstock utilization.
- Klingenberg, Daniel J.; Root, Thatcher W.; Burlawar, Shalaka; Scott, C. Tim; Bourne, Keith J.; Gleisner, Roland; Houtman, Carl; Subramaniam, Vish. 2017. Rheometry of coarse biomass at high temperature and pressure.
- Rudie, Alan W.; Houtman, Carl J.; Groom, Les; Nicholls, David L.; Zhu, Junyong. 2016. A survey of bioenergy research in Forest Service Research and Development.
- Houtman, Carl J.; Kitin, Peter; Houtman, Jon C. D.; Hammel, Kenneth E.; Hunt, Christopher G. 2016. Acridine Orange Indicates Early Oxidation of Wood Cell Walls by Fungi.
- Zhu, Junyong; Zhang, Chao; Gleisner, Roland; Houtman, Carl; Pan, Xuejun. 2016. Bioconversion of woody biomass to biofuel and lignin co-product using sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL).
- Korripally, Premsagar; Hunt, Christopher G.; Houtman, Carl J.; Jones, Don C.; Kitin, Peter J.; Cullen, Dan; Hammel, Kenneth E.; Brakhage, A. A. 2015. Regulation of Gene Expression during the Onset of Ligninolytic Oxidation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium on Spruce Wood.
- Yelle, Daniel J.; Kapich, Alexander N.; Houtman, Carl J.; Lu, Fachuang; Timokhin, Vitaliy I.; Fort Jr., Raymond C.; Ralph, John; Hammel, Kenneth E. 2014. A Highly Diastereoselective Oxidant Contributes to Ligninolysis by the White Rot Basidiomycete Ceriporiopsis subvermispora.
- Zhang, C.; Houtman, C.J.; Zhu, J.Y. 2014. Using low temperature to balance enzymatic saccharification and furan formation during SPORL pretreatment of Douglas-fir.
- Hart, Peter W.; Houtman, Carl; Hirth, Kolby. 2013. Hydrogen peroxide and caustic soda: Dancing with a dragon while bleaching.
- Wegner, T.H.; Houtman, C.J.; Rudie, A.W.; Illman, B.L.; Ince, P.J.; Bilek, E.M.; Jeffries, T.W. 2013. Chapter 6: Prehydrolysis Pulping with Fermentation Coproducts.
- Korripally, Premsagar; Timokhin, Vitaliy I.; Houtman, Carl J.; Mozuch, Michael D.; Hammel, Kenneth E. 2013. Evidence from Serpula lacrymans that 2,5-Dimethoxyhydroquinone Is a Lignocellulolytic Agent of Divergent Brown Rot Basidiomycetes.
- Hunt, Christopher G.; Houtman, Carl J.; Jones, Don C.; Kitin, Peter; Korripally, Premsagar; Hammel, Kenneth E. 2013. Spatial mapping of extracellular oxidant production by a white rot basidiomycete on wood reveals details of ligninolytic mechanism.
- Zhang, Jilin; Zhao, Yuxi; Dubay, Matthew R.; Severtson, Steven J.; Gwin, Larry E.; Houtman, Carl J. 2013. Surface Enrichment by Conventional and Polymerizable Sulfated Nonylphenol Ethoxylate Emulsifiers in Water-Based Pressure-Sensitive Adhesive.
- Runge, Troy; Houtman, Carl; Negri, Alberto; Heinricher, Jackie. 2013. Timber Bamboo Pulp.
- Elder, Thomas; Houtman, Carl. 2013. Time-domain NMR study of the drying of hemicellulose extracted aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.).
- Pu, Gang; Dubay, Matthew R.; Zhang, Jiguang; Severtson, Steven J.; Houtman, Carl J. 2012. Polyacrylates with High Biomass Contents for Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives Prepared via Mini-emulsion Polymerization.
- Zhu, W.; Houtman, Carl J.; Zhu, J.Y.; Gleisner, Roland; Chen, K.F. 2012. Quantitative predictions of bioconversion of aspen by dilute acid and SPORL pretreatments using a unified combined hydrolysis factor (CHF).
- Guo, Jihui; Gwin, Larry; Houtman, Carl; Kroll, Mark; Severtson, Steven J. 2012. Recycling Pressure-Sensitive Products.
- Bilek, Ted; Houtman, Carl; Ince, Peter. 2011. Evaluation of a value prior to pulping-thermomechanical pulp business concept. Part 2..
- Houtman, Carl; Horn, Eric. 2011. Pilot trials of hemicelluloses extraction prior to thermomechanical pulp production: Part 1.
- Ryu, Jae San; Shary, Semarjit; Houtman, Carl J.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Korripally, Premsagar; St. John, Franz J.; Crooks, Casey; Siika-aho, Matti; Magnuson, Jon K.; Hammel, Kenneth E. 2011. Proteomic and functional analysis of the cellulase system expressed by Postia placenta during brown rot of solid wood.
- Lee, Jae-Won; Houtman, Carl J.; Kim, Hye-Yun; Choi, In-Gyu; Jeffries, Thomas W. 2011. Scale-up study of oxalic acid pretreatment of agricultural lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol.
- Xu, Guizhen H.; Dong, Jinping; Zhang, Jiguang; Severtson, Steven J.; Houtman, Carl J.; Gwin, Larry E. 2008. Characterizing the distribution of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants in water-based pressure-sensitive adhesive films using atomic-force and confocal Raman microscopy.
- Severtson, Steven J.; Guo, Jihui; Gwin, Larry; Houtman, Carl J.; Kroll, Mark. 2008. Design criteria for recycling compatible pressure-sensitive products.
- Vahey, David W.; Zhu, Junyong; Houtman, Carl J. 2007. A new approach to measurement of effective residual ink concentration of deinked papers.
- Kenealy, William R.; Houtman, Carl J.; Laplaza, Jose; Jeffries, Thomas W.; Horn, Eric G. 2007. Pretreatments for converting wood into paper and chemicals.
- Houtman, Carl J.; Severtson, Steve J.; Guo, Jihui; Xu, Helen; Gwin, Larry. 2007. Properties of water-based acrylic pressure sensitive adhesive films in aqueous environments.
- Kenealy, William; Horn, Eric; Houtman, Carl. 2007. Vapor-phase diethyl oxalate pretreatment of wood chips. Part 1, Energy savings and improved pulps.
- Kenealy, William; Horn, Eric; Davis, Mark; Swaney, Ross; Houtman, Carl. 2007. Vapor-phase diethyl oxalate pretreatment of wood chips. Part 2, Release of hemicellulosic carbohydrates.
- Suzuki, Melissa R.; Hunt, Christopher G.; Houtman, Carl J.; Dalebroux, Zachary D.; Hammel, Kenneth E. 2006. Fungal hydroquinones contribute to brown rot of wood.
- Verhulst, Ryan F.; Severtson, Steven J.; Guo, Jihui; Houtman, Carl J. 2006. Properties of pressure sensitive adhesives found in paper recycling operations.
- Hunt, Chris; Kenealy, William; Horn, Eric; Houtman, Carl. 2004. A biopulping mechanism : creation of acid groups on fiber.
- Kenealy, William R.; Hunt, Chris; Horn, Eric; Houtman, Carl. 2004. A new mechanism of biopulping : attachment of acid groups on fiber.
- Houtman, Carl; Scallon, Karen; Guo, Jihui; Wang, XinPing; Severtson, Steve; Kroll, Mark; Nowak, Mike. 2004. Controlling adhesive behavior during recycling.
- Das, Tapas K.; Houtman, Carl. 2004. Evaluating chemical-, mechanical-, and bio-pulping processes and their sustainability characterization using life cycle assessment.
- Swaney, Ross; Akhtar, Masood; Horn, Eric; Lentz, Michael; Houtman, Carl; Klungness, John. 2003. Commercialization of biopulping: an energy-saving and environmentally-friendly technology for the paper industry.
- Doshi, Mahendra R.; Moore, William J.; Venditti, R.A.; Copeland, K.; Chang, H.-M.; Putz, Hans-Joachim; Delagoutte, Thierry; Houtman, Carl; Tan, Freya; Davie, Lisa; Sauve, Gregg; Dahl, Tim; Robinson, Dave. 2003. Comparison of macrostickies measurement methods.
- Doshi, Mahendra R.; Blanco, Angeles; Negro, Carlos; Dorris, Gilles M.; Castro, Carlos C.; Hamann, Axel; Haynes, R. Daniel; Houtman, Carl; Scallon, Karen; Putz, Hans-Joachim; Johansson, Hans; Venditti, R.A.; Copeland, K.; Chang, H.-M. 2003. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part I, sample preparation and measurement methods.
- Doshi, Mahendra R.; Blanco, Angeles; Negro, Carlos; Monte, Concepcion; Dorris, Gilles M.; Castro, Carlos C.; Hamann, Axel; Haynes, R. Daniel; Houtman, Carl; Scallon, Karen; Putz, Hans-Joachim; Johansson, Hans; Venditti, R. A.; Copeland, K.; Chang, H.-M. 2003. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part II, Results and discussion.
- Hunt, Chris; Kenealy, William; Houtman, Carl. 2003. Understanding wood chemistry changes during biopulping.
- Houtman, Carl; Seiter, Daniel; Ross Sutherland, Nancy; Donermeyer, Donald. 2002. Can laboratory and pilot recycling trials predict adhesive removal in commercial recycling systems : results from the USPS environmentally benign stamp project.
- Cohen, Roni; Jensen, Kenneth A.; Houtman, Carl J.; Hammel, Kenneth E. 2002. Significant levels of extracellular reactive oxygen species produced by brown rot basidiomycetes on cellulose.
- Hunt, Chris; Wiedenhoeft, Alex; Horn, Eric; Houtman, Carl. 2001. Evaluation of physical changes in wood during colonization by Ceriporiopsis submervispora.
- Laroche, Helene; Sain, Mohini; Houtman, Carl; Daneault, Claude. 2001. POM-assisted electrochemical delignification and bleaching of chemical pulp.
- Houtman, Carl; Sutherland, Nancy Ross; Bormett, David; Donermeyer, Donald. 2000. Development of USPS Laboratory and pilot-scale testing protocols.
- Birchmeier, Matthew J.; Hill, Charles G.; Houtman, Carl J.; Atalla, Rajai H.; Weinstock, Ira A. 2000. Enhanced wet air oxidation : synergistic rate acceleration upon effluent recirculation.
- Rosenberger, Roy R.; Houtman, Carl J. 2000. Quantification of pressure sensitive adhesive, residual ink, and other colored process contaminants using dye and color image analysis.
- Atalla, R. H.; Weinstock, L. A.; Reiner, R. S.; Houtman, C. J.; Reichel, S.; Hill, C. G.; Hill, C. L. 1999. Recent advances in polyoxometalate based delignification.
- Houtman, Carl J. 1999. What factors control dimerization of coniferyl alcohol.
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