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The Patent Program helps convert Forest Service research into usable information and technologies that benefit both the American public and industry.

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Title Status Number Authors Keywords Abstract Filed Date Program Area
Method for Treating Lignocellulosic MaterialsIssued8,092,647Akhtar, Masood
Kenealy, William
Horn, Eric
Swaney, Ross
pulp, lignocellulose, oxalic acidDepending on how the wood is processed for pulp production, different components of lignocellulose will be dominant in the pulp, resulting in varying degrees of paper strength. This invention discloses a method which treats the lignocellulose in the vapor stage of pulp-production with oxalic acid derivatives. The treatment preserves fiber structures and the treated wood may be used to prepare thermochemical, mechanical, or Kraft pulp that requires less refining energy. The process permits deeper and more widespread penetration of the chemical treatment into the wood. The treated wood can be used to produce numerous products. Importantly, the process does not degrade the fibers, resulting in stronger end products.07-08-2005Resource Management and Use
Method and Apparatus for Determining the Surface Area of a Threaded FastenerIssued8,041,150Rammer, Douglas
Zelinka, Samuel
surface area, threaded fastener, algorithmA method and apparatus are provided for the determination of a surface area of a fastener, such as a threaded fastener. Specifically, an image of the fastener is acquired, and the image is separated into at least two regions, for instance three regions, and the surface area of each region is determined. The surface areas determined for each region are summed to determine the surface area of the fastener.11-29-2006Resource Management and Use
Process for Rapid Microwave-Enhanced Detoxification of CCA-Treated WoodIssued8,043,399Hse, Chung
Shupe, Todd
Yu, Bin
Pan, Hui
detoxify CCA copper chromium arsenic treated wood, Process for Rapid Microwave-Enhanced Detoxification of CCA-Treated Wood.A method for detoxifying spent CCA (copper, chromium, arsenic) treated wood, from which CCA is efficiently removed from the wood, allowing both the CCA and the wood to be reused has been developed. The method comprises the steps of (1) microwave-enhanced acid extraction of CCA, (2) separation of the acid-containing CCA solution from the wood, (3) separation/precipitation of CCA from the acid extract, (4) recovery and regeneration of CCA-bearing precipitant for reuse in the wood preservation industry, (5) recycling recovered acid solution, (6) microwave-assisted liquefaction of the extracted wood, and (7) use of detoxified liquefied wood to form polymeric materials such as polyurethanes and phenolic resin adhesives. The recovered CCA may be used to treat wood. The recovered acids may be used to extract CCA from CCA-treated wood, and the liquefied wood may be used as phenolic or polyurethane resins.07-15-2010Resource Management and Use
Composite Components From Anaerobic Digested Fibrous MaterialsIssued8,414,808Dvorak, Stephen
Hunt, John
composite components, anaerobically digested biomass, effluent, fibrous residual material, convert, wet-mat drying, value, wasteThe invention relates to composite components and methods of producing composite components. In yet another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing a composite component using anaerobically digested biomass. In still yet another embodiment, the method further comprises using liquid effluent from the digester. In still yet another embodiment, the method further comprises wet-mat forming and cold pressing the anaerobically digested biomass and wet-mat drying under heat and pressure.10-03-2008Resource Management and Use
Engineered Molded Fiberboard Panels, Methods of Making the Panels, and Products Fabricated From the PanelsIssued8,475,894Noble, Robert
Hunt, John
Gu, Hongmei
Newburn, Timothy
Mahoney, James
Lassegard, Coleen
moldable, fiberboard, hexagonally shaped cells, honeycomb panel, stack, versatile, rigid, bendable, construction, packaging A honeycomb-shaped panel is formed from a plurality of generally sinusoidally shaped strips of molded fiberboard material each having spaced, oppositely directed flat peaks, the peaks of adjacent strips being secured together to form a plurality of hexagonally shaped cells extending perpendicular to the surfaces of the sheet. The strips may be cut from a single sheet of corrugated fiberboard sheet material and then secured together to form the honeycomb panel, or a plurality of such panels may be secured together face to face with their ribs aligned to form a stack, and selected cuts may be made through the secured, stacked panels to form a plurality of honeycomb panels of desired surface shape and height dimensions. The strips forming the cells are substantially rigid and resistant to collapse of the cells, and form a substantially rigid core when assembled between two flexible fiberboard skins, while the panel is bendable to adopt a desired panel curvature.03-28-2008Resource Management and Use
Engineered Molded Fiberboard Panels and Methods of Making and Using the SameIssued8,297,027Noble, Robert
Gu, Hongmei
Newburn, Timothy
Mahoney, James
Hunt, John
fiberboard, panel, moldable, slits, ribs, grooves, cellulose fiber material, flexible, construction, packaging, layerA fiberboard panel is formed from at least one corrugated sheet of molded cellulose fiber material having alternating ribs and grooves. Spaced slits are cut through the ribs on one face of the sheet and terminate short of the opposite face so as to form at least one slotted portion of more flexibility which may be bent to form a curve. The corrugated sheet is sandwiched between two flat sheets of the same material to form a composite panel. The corrugated sheet or panel is formed by a wet processing method including successive cold and hot press steps in which a wet mat is pressed between an opposing perforated platen and non-perforated, elastomeric material platen of cross-sectional shape substantially matching the desired panel shape and dimensions.03-28-2008Inventory and Monitoring
Resource Management and Use
Method of Making Medium Density FiberboardIssued8,123,904Akhtar, Masood
Kenealy, William
Horn, Eric
Swaney, Ross
Winandy, Jerrold
medium density fiberboard (MDF), pulp, fibrous lignocellulose, water repellency (improved), oxalic acid derivatives, sugar extraction wash, reduced energy requirement, energy efficient, wood productThe present invention provides a method for producing an MDF board from pulp from a fibrous lignocellulose material using a treatment or pretreatment step which exposes the material to oxalic acid or oxalic acid derivatives (particularly dialkyl ester derivatives, particularly in the vapor phase). The treated wood is then subjected to a sugar extraction wash and refined using any one of the several pulping methods to produce a final pulp product. Once this is done the pulp is used to make MDF boards having improved water repellency properties.09-01-2006Resource Management and Use
Sugar Transport Sequences, Yeast Strains Having Improved Sugar Uptake, and Methods of UseIssued8,105,811Jeffries, Thomas
Bae, JuYun
Lin, Bernice
Van Vleet, Jennifer
yeast, pichia stipitis, saccharomyces cerevisiae, nucleic acid constructs, xylose, glucose, protein coding sequences, ethanol production, xylitol production, alternative energy source, sugar fermentation, sugar uptake, sugar transportDisclosed are nucleic acid constructs comprising coding sequences operably linked to a promoter not natively associated with the coding sequence. The coding sequences encode Pichia stipitis proteins that allow recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the protein to grow on xylose, and allow or increase uptake of xylose by Pichia stipitis or Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the coding sequences. Expression of the coding sequences enhances uptake of xylose and/or glucose, allowing increased ethanol or xylitol production.06-13-2008Resource Management and Use
Co-Fermentation of Glucose, Xylose and/or Cellobiose by YeastIssued8,530,211Jeffries, Thomas
Willis, Laura
Long, Tanya
Su, Yi-Kai
yeast, Spathaspora, fermentation, glucose, xylose, cellobiose, ethanol production, hydrolysates, lignocellulosic material, industrial fermentation, alternative energy, mixtureCo-Fermentation of Glucose, Xylose and/or Cellobiose by Yeast. This invention presents a method for producing ethanol through the manipulation of Spathaspora yeast cells. Under this method, a mixture composed of xylose, glucose and/or cellobiose is added to the Spathaspora yeast under conditions that allow the yeast to convert the xylose mixture into ethanol. The xylose mixture is derived from woody feedstocks or lignocellulose materials.04-19-2011Resource Management and Use
Multi-Component Biocide Composition for Wood ProtectionAbandoned7,858,125Clausen, Carol
Yang, Vina
West, Michael
insect, biocide, wood, borate, azole, multi-component, fungi, moldA multi-component biocide composition comprising a borate component in combination with an azole component to both inhibit mold fungi, decay fungi, such as brown-rot fungi and white-rot fungi, and to resist insect infestation.03-22-2006Invasive Species
Resource Management and Use
Wildland Fire and Fuels
Method and Apparatus to Produce Synthesis Gas Via Flash Pyrolysis and Gasification in a Molten LiquidIssued7,875,090Dietenberger, Mark
Anderson, Mark
biomass, synthesis gas, conversion, flash pyrolysis, molten liquidDisclosed are a method and a corresponding apparatus for converting a biomass reactant to synthesis gas. The method includes the steps of (1) heating biomass in a first molten liquid bath at a first temperature, wherein the first temperature is at least about 100°C., but less than the decomposition temperature of the biomass, wherein gas comprising water is evaporated and air pressed from the biomass, thereby yielding dried biomass with a minimal air content. (2) Recapturing the moisture evaporated from the biomass in step 1 for use in the process gas. (3) Heating the dried biomass in a second molten liquid bath at a second temperature, where in the second temperature is sufficiently high to cause flash pyrolysis of char. (4) Inserting recaptured steam into the process gas, which may optionally include external natural gas or hydrogen as or recycled syngas for mixing and reforming with tar and non-condensable gases. (5) Further reacting the product gases, tar, and char with the process gas within a third molten liquid bath at a third temperature which is equal to tor greater than the second temperature within the second molten liquid bath, thereby yielding high quality and relatively clean synthesis gas after a relatively long residence time needed for char gasification. A portion of the synthesis gas o formed is combusted to heat the first, second, and third molten liquid baths, unless external natural or hydrogen gas is available for this use.04-24-2007Wildland Fire and Fuels
Method for Characterizing the Density and Cross-Section Morphology of TreesIssued7,945,098Vahey, David
Zhu, JunYong
Scott, C Tim
characterization, density, morphology, growth rings, early wood, late wood, tracheid wall thickness, tracheid exterior dimension, sample, wood anatomy, pulp and paperA method is provided for reliably determining anatomical properties of a tree having a plurality of growth rings spaced from each other in a radial direction. The method involves preparing a sample from a tree to be analyzed, and preparing an image of the sample at a resolution sufficient to analyze at least one of the earlywood and latewood portions of one or more rings. The image is used to determine at least one anatomical property of the sample based on the image, the anatomical property being selected from the group consisting of sample density, tracheid wall thickness, and tracheid exterior dimension.05-17-2007Resource Management and Use
Method and Apparatus For Monitoring Liquid and Solid Contents in a FrothAbandoned7,618,517Zhu, JunYong
Tan, Freya
Gleisner, Roland
froth, liquid, solid, content, conductance, electrodesA method and apparatus are presented for determining the quantity of liquid and solid content in a removal stream of a froth created from a suspension that is generated during a froth floatation operation. Specifically, electrodes are immersed in the froth generated from a suspension having a known quantity of fiber particles, and the conductance of the froth is measured to establish a relationship between the measured conductance and the quantity of fiber particles. The electrodes are then submerged in a froth generated from a suspension having an unknown quantity of fiber particles, and the froth conductance is measured. the quantity of fiber particles in the froth can be determined from the pre-established relationship between conductance and solid particle content.03-25-2005Resource Management and Use
Wood Adhesives Containing Solid Residues of Biomass FermentationsAbandoned7,651,582Weimer, Paul
Lorenz, Linda
Conner, Anthony
Frihart, Charles
bioadhesive, wood, microbial, glycocalyx, fermentation, residueA bioadhesive composition for bonding together adjacent surfaces of wood comprises a microbially-produced fermentation residue containing adherent microbial cells and glycocalyx. This residue finds particular application as a replacement for a significant amount of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) or other conventional adhesive component commonly used in the production of plywood and other wood products.05-06-2003Resource Management and Use
Yeast Transformation SystemIssued7,501,275Laplaza, Jose
Jeffries, Thomas
yeast, transformation, polypeptide, expression, Pichia stipitesDisclosed are methods for obtaining expression of polypeptides in organisms employing alternative codon systems, and polynucleotides for use therein.10-27-2004Resource Management and Use
Non-Destructive Method of Measuring a Moisture Content Profile Across a Hygroexpansive, Composite MaterialAbandoned7,571,061Cai, Zhiyong
moisture, hygroexpansive, radiation, volumetric, shrinkageThe teachings provided herein are generally directed to a non-destructive method of measuring a moisture content profile across a dimension of a hygroexpansive, composite material using radiation and a volumetric shrinkage correction. The measurement of a series of moisture content profiles over time can provide, for example, a measure of the movement of moisture during the process of drying of the composite material.04-17-2007Resource Management and Use
Methods for Integrating the Production of Cellulose Nanofibrils with the Production of Cellulose NanocrystalsIssued8,710,213Zhu, JunYong
Reiner, Richard
cellulose nanocrystals, cellulose nanofibrils, degradation, acid hydrolysis Methods for integrating the production of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) from cellulose are provided. The methods use milder acid hydrolysis conditions than those for maximal CNC production to achieve reduced degradation of cellulose into soluble sugars. Also provided are negatively charged cellulosic solid residues (CSRs) in the form of cellulose fibers (CF) and/or cellulose microfibrils (CMF) during the acid hydrolysis, as well as CNFs fabricated from the CSRs.05-14-2012Resource Management and Use
Naphthalenic Compounds as Termite Bait ToxicantsIssued6,691,453Guadalupe Rojas, Maria
Morales-Ramos, Juan
Green, Frederick
Kuster, Thomas
Naphthalenic, termites, cellulose, naphthalenic compounds, termite-preferred nutrients, monitoring, matrices, termite toxins Termite foods mixed together in a matrix suitable to be used as baits and attractants for termites are provided. They comprise cellulose, naphthalenic compounds, water and potentially other termite-preferred nutrients. Methods of monitoring the presence of termites using such matrices and methods of controlling termites using such matrices to deliver termite toxins are also provided.04-30-2002Invasive Species
Resource Management and Use
Magnetostrictive Precipitation GageAbandoned6,490,917Luce, Charlie
magnetostrictive, precipitation, gage, catch tube, float, fluid, transducer A magnetostrictive precipitation gage includes a catch tube having an upper opening configured to receive precipitation therein. A vertical magnetostrictive rod and corresponding magnetic float linearly displaceable thereon are used to determine the fluid level within the catch tube. More particularly, as the fluid level fluctuates in the catch tube, so will the vertical position of the float, which interacts magnetically with the magnetostrictive rod. Accordingly, the vertical position of the float may be detected to determine the fluid level within the catch tube, and calculations regarding precipitation may be performed.08-10-2000Resource Management and Use
Fungal Degradation and Bioremediation System for ACQ-Treated WoodAbandoned6,387,691Illman, Barbara
Yang, Vina
Ferge, Leslie
fungus, degradation, bioremediation, ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ), fungal, inoculum, waste wood, lignocellulose, Meruliporia incrassate, Antrodia radiculosaA method for degrading and/or bioremediating waste wood containing ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ) using a fungal inoculum is disclosed. The fungal inoculum comprises of at least one ACQ-tolerant fungus a lignocellulosic substrate and a nutrient supplement. The fungal inoculum is applied to waste wood and maintained in an aerated and hydrated environment having temperature conditions sufficient to allow the inoculum to grow and metabolize ACQ. The inoculum and the waste wood are combined until an end product is achieved that is at least partially remediated or of a reduced volume.03-31-2000Resource Management and Use
Fungal Degradation and Bioremediation System for Creosote-Treated WoodAbandoned6,387,689Illman, Barbara
Yang, Vina
Ferge, Leslie
fungus, degradation, bioremediation, creosote, fungal inoculum, fungal, waste wood, Antrodia radiculosa, Neolentinus lepideusA method for degrading and/or bioremediating waste wood containing creosote using a fungal inoculum is disclosed. The fungal inoculum comprises of at least one creosote-tolerant fungi, a lignocellulosic substrate and a nutrient supplement. A fungal inoculum is applied to the waste wood and maintained in an aerated and hydrated environment having temperature conditions sufficient to allow the inoculum to grow and metabolize creosote. The inoculum and the waste wood are combined until an end product is achieved that is at least partially remediated or of a reduced volume.03-31-2000Resource Management and Use
Fungal Degradation and Bioremediation System for Pentachlorophenol-Treated WoodAbandoned6,383,800Illman, Barbara
Yang, Vina
Ferge, Leslie
bioremediation, pentachlorophenol, fungal degradation, fungal inoculum, fungus, waste wood, Meruliporia increasstata, Antrodia radiculosaA method for degrading and/or bioremediating waste wood containing pentachlorophenol (penta) using a fungal inoculum is disclosed. The fungal inoculum comprises of at least one penta-tolerant fungi, a lignocellulosic substrate and a nutrient supplement. The fungal inoculum is applied to the waste wood and maintained in an aerated and hydrated environment having temperature conditions sufficient to allow the inoculum to grow and metabolize the pentachlorophenol. The inoculum and the waste wood are combined until an end product is achieved that is at least partially remediated or of a reduced volume.03-31-2000Resource Management and Use
Wildland Fire and Fuels
Method of Making Three-Dimensional Laminated StructuresIssued6,352,605Hunt, John
three-dimensional, 3D, laminate, die-cutting, laminated structure, plurality, sheet, bondA three-dimensional laminated structure and method for making same are provided. The method involves die-cutting a plurality of sheets, including cutting through the sheets around the periphery of selected sections, aligning and bonding the sheets, and forming the selected sections out-of-plane with a forming tool.10-18-1999Invasive Species
Resource Management and Use
Apparatus for Molding Three-Dimensional ObjectsAbandoned6,190,151Hunt, John
three-dimensional, 3D, molding, fibers, elastomeric, porous, pressure, honey-comb structure, ribs, flangesA method of making a three-dimensional object from fibers includes attaching a mold made at least in part of elastomeric material to a porous support. The mold comprises a first mold member defining at least one channel in fluid communication with the porous support. each channel has within it at least one second mold member. A mixture of fibers and fluid carrier is poured onto the mold. Thereafter, a pressure differential is created across the mold to create a flow of the mixture toward the porous support via the second mold members. This flow causes the fluid carrier to pass through the porous support, thus depositing the fibers within the recessed parts of the second mold members in the mold. Thereafter, the mold is compressed sufficiently to deform the mold and to provide uniform, normal pressure to the fibers which have been deposited in the second mold members.07-09-1998Resource Management and Use
Method for the Measurement of Forest Duff Moisture ContentAbandoned6,078,181Robichaud, Pete
Hungerford, Roger
Gasvoda, David
duff, moisture content, pressure, moisture measurement circuitry, surface probe, dielectric constant, organic material, electrode, reflectometry, impedence, measurementAn apparatus and method for the moisture content measurement of compressible materials using pressure to firmly hold surface probes against the material to be measured. The apparatus uses moisture measurement circuitry employed in frequency domain impedence or time domain reflectometry devices to obtain moisture content readings from materials. These moisture content readings are based on the apparent dielectric constant of the measured material. Subsurface air voids or gaps found in loose, layered materials undesirably influence moisture measurement readings by reducing the apparent dielectric constant of the measured material. Pressure is supplied through the apparatus to the material in the proximity of surface probes, thereby reducing air voids to enhance measurement accuracy. The apparatus and method are especially useful for compressible organic materials such as forest duff, hay and soil.12-18-1996Resource Management and Use
Quick Deployment Fire ShelterAbandoned5,921,388Petrilli, Anthony
Bickers, William
fire shelter, rapid, deployment, protect, handle, pouchA rapidly deployable fire shelter employs a flexible web handle attached directly to a protective pouch holding the folded fire shelter. The handle includes opposed fastener surfaces that may be interposed between the closure normally holding the cover to the protective pouch. The handle extends outside the pouch to be grasped by the firefighter and pulled so as in a single motion to release the cover from the pouch and extract the fire shelter without loss of control of the fire shelter.11-25-1998Resource Management and Use
Apparatus and Method for the Measurement of Forest Duff Moisture ContentAbandoned5,920,195Robichaud, Pete
Hungerford, Roger
Gasvoda, David
apparatus, moisture content, measurement, duff, surface probe, impendence, reflectometry, dielectric constant, organic material, electrodeAn apparatus and method for the moisture content measurement of compressible materials using pressure to firmly hold surface probes against the material to be measured. The apparatus uses moisture measurement circuitry employed in frequency domain impedence or time domain reflectometry devices to obtain moisture content readings from materials. These moisture content readings are based on the apparent dielectric constant of the measured material. Subsurface air voids or gaps found in loose, layered materials undesirably influence moisture measurement readings by reducing the apparent dielectric constant of the measured material. Pressure is supplied through the apparatus to the material in the proximity of the surface probes, thereby reducing air voids to enhance measurement accuracy. The apparatus and method are especially useful for compressible organic materials such as forest duff, hay and soil.12-18-1996Resource Management and Use
Biopulping Industrial Wood WasteAbandoned6,402,887Akhtar, Masood
Scott, Gary M.
Ahmed, Aziz
Lentz, Michael J.
Horn, Eric G.
biopulp, pulp, industrial, wood waste, white-rot-fungi, lignin, degrade, paper, inoculation, kraft pulp, virgin wood, Phlebia subserialis, Phlebia tremellosa, Dichomitus sqalens, Perenniporia medulla-panis, Phlebia brevisporia, Hyphondontia setulosa, Ceriporiopsis subvermisporaA method using biological processes in the production of pulp from industrial wood waste is described. The process makes use of various species of white-rot fungi which selectively degrade lignin. The industrial wood waste must be cleaned and hydrated prior to inoculation with the fungus. Paper produced by this process has excellent strength characteristics as compared to both non-treated industrial wood waste and pulp produced from virgin wood chips. Substantial energy savings are also realized when the biopulped industrial wood waste chips are further refined by conventional mechanical pulping procedures. Kraft pulping of wood waste rsulted in strength properties comparable to those of virgin wood. Fungal pretreatment subsequently enhanced the resulting kraft pulp properties.12-01-1997Resource Management and Use
Method and Apparatus for On-Line Monitoring of Log SawingAbandoned6,467,352Schafer, Mark E.
Ross, Robert J.
acoustic, log, sawing, on-line, monitor, measurement, wood, split detection, ultrasonic, transducerUltrasonic techniques are applied to the measurement of wooden members of detect splitting during sawing operations and thereby allow modification of a sawing technique or change in saw cut placement.04-16-1998Resource Management and Use
Sham-Sensitive Terminal Oxidase Gene from Xylose-Fermenting YeastIssued6,391,599 B1Shi, Nian-Qing
Jeffries, Thomas W.
SHAM-sensitive, terminal oxidase, yeast, xylose, ethanol, Pichia stipitisDisclosed is a SHAM-sensitive terminal oxidase (STO) gene from the xylose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis. Also disclosed is a mutant of Pichia stipitis in which the STO gene natively present in the wild-type yeast was disrupted. Mutants of Pichia stipitis having reduced expression of PsSTO were found to exhibit enhanced fermentation of xylose to ethanol.04-21-2000Resource Management and Use
Container for 4-allylanisole and Analog Scolytid PesticidesAbandoned6,306,913 Hayes, Jane L.
Strom, Brian L.
Roton, Lawrence M.
Ingram Jr., Leonard L.
Butts, Edgar R.
repellant, 4-allylanisole (4AA), analog, scolytid, insecticide, conifer, infestationA projectile can be used to administer pesticides such as one or more from the group consisting of 4-allylanisole, anisole, allylbenzene, 4-isopropylanisole, p=anisaldehyde, ethylbenzene, cumene, 4-methoxyacetophenone, 4-methylstyrene, 2-propylphenol, phenetole, and toluene, for scolytid infestation. Conifers, which are a target for scolytids, are protected by the application of the pesticides by use of a projectile containing the compound which explodes upon contact with the conifer thereby emitting the compound.08-31-1993Resource Management and Use
Method and Apparatus for On-Line Monitoring of Log SawingAbandoned6,295,907 Schafer, Mark E.
Ross, Robert J.
acoustic, log, sawing, on-line, monitor, wood, split detection, ultrasonic, transducerUltrasonic techniques are applied to the measurement of wooden members to detect splitting during sawing operations and thereby allow modification of sawing technique or change in saw cut placement.04-16-1998Resource Management and Use
Multiple-Piece Corner PostAbandoned6,286,683Hunt, John F.
Qiu, Yanping
corner, post, cushion, support, structural member, L shape, ribsA multiple-piece corner post used for cushioning and supporting large appliances is provided. The corner post is made from two or more structural members joined together. The multiple structural members are shaped into the desired shapes and then joined together near the ends to form a generally "L" shaped corner post. Similarly shaped structural members may be nested to save space during shipping prior to assembly.08-27-1999Invasive Species
Resource Management and Use
System and Method of Assessing the Structural Properties of Wooden Members Using UltrasoundIssued6,276,209 B1Schafer, Mark E.
Ross, Robert J.
Erickson, John R.
DeGroot, Rodney C.
wood, structural property, ultrasound, detection, anomaly, grain variation, waveform, transmitter, receiver, rollerA system and method of detecting anomalies and/or grain variations in a wooden member. At least one ultrasonic transmitter applies an ultrasound waveform into a surface of a wooden member so as to generate a multiplicity of ultrasonic waves including, e.g. longitudinal and shear ultrasonic waves. These ultrasonic waves are measured after propagation through the wooden member by at least one ultrasonic receiver disposed on the same surface of the wooden member. At least one ultrasonic receiver may also be placed opposite the ultrasonic transmitter so as to detect radial transmission of the longitudinal ultrasonic wave at a point across from the wooden member. The received ultrasonic waves are processed to determine anomalies and/or grain variations in the wooden member at positions of the wooden member between the ultrasonic transmitter and the ultrasonic receiver(s). The ultrasonic transmitters and receivers may be placed in rollers to facilitate high-speed, in-line processing of wooden members.09-30-1999Resource Management and Use
Composites Containing Cellulosic Pulp Fibers and Methods of Making and Using the SameAbandoned6,270,883 Sears, Karl D.
Jacobson, Rodney E.
Caulfield, Daniel F.
Underwood, John
composite, cellulose, pulp, fiber, matrix, thermoplastic, polymericReinforced composites containing cellulosic pulp fibers dispersed in a matrix, wherein the matrix comprises a thermoplastic polymeric material melting above 180°C. and the cellulosic pulp fibers have an alpha-cellulose purity greater than 80% by weight. Methods of making and using the reinforced composites.10-09-1998Resource Management and Use
Fungal Inoculum PreparationAbandoned6,143,549Lamar, Richard T.
Smith, Christine E.
Dietrich, Diane M.
inoculum, preparation, pellet, nutrient, substrate, fungusA fungal inoculum comprising a pelleted nutrient substrate coated with fungal propagules suspended in a hydrophilic material is disclosed.06-05-1995Resource Management and Use
Biological Control of Plant Disease on Roots of Conifer SeedlingsAbandoned6,133,196Ocamb, Cynthia M.
Buschena, Cynthia
disease, conifer, seeding, bacteria, ectomycorrhizal fungus, seed, biological control agent, root rot, Fusarium, Methylbacterium mesophilicium, Streptomyces lavendulae, Streptomyces rochei, Streptomyces violaceusniger, Rhodococcus, erythropolis, Kocuria varians, Pseudomonas diminutaA novel method and composition is provided to control Fusarium root rot and damping off on conifer seedlings. When certain bacteria and an ectomycorrhizal fungus are placed in contact with the conifer seed or seedling, the combination reduces or eliminates disease symptoms caused by several Fusarium species.08-13-1996Resource Management and Use
Method and Apparatus for Detecting and Characterizing Splits In LogsAbandoned6,092,418Schafer, Mark E.
Ross, Robert J.
ultrasonic, detection, log, split, acoustic discontinuity, transducer, electronicUltrasonic techniques are applied to the measurement of wooden members to identify splits in wooden members. Multiple angularly displaced measurements allow detection of splits at arbitrary angles.04-16-1998Resource Management and Use
Disruption of the Cytochrome C Gene in Xylose-Fermenting YeastAbandoned6,071,729Jeffries, Thomas W.
Shi, Nian-Qing
cytochrome c, xylose-fermenting, yeast, ethanol, xylose, strain, mutant, wild-type, NRRL-Y-21448 Pichia stipitisDisclosed is a xylose-fermenting mutant yeast strain exhibiting reduced expression of cytochrome c and enhanced fermentation of xylose relative to xylose-fermenting yeast strains in which cytochrome c is fully functional. Also disclosed is a method of producing ethanol from xylose by culturing a xylose-fermenting mutant yeast strain exhibiting reduced expression of cytochrome c in the presence of xylose-containing material.04-02-1998Resource Management and Use
Ultrasonic Apparatus for Characterizing Wooden MembersAbandoned6,029,522Schafer, Mark E.
Ross, Robert J.
wood, anomaly, ultrasonic, beam, gradingUltrasonic techniques are applied to the measurement of wooden members to identify localized anomalies internal to the wooden members substantially smaller than the full width of the ultrasonic beam. Multiple spatially displaced measurements allow generation of comprehensive maps of the wooden members to aid in computer cutting and grading of the wooden members.02-26-1998Resource Management and Use
Hardened and Fire Retardant Wood ProductsAbandoned5,605,767Fuller, B. Shannon
Ellis, W. Dale
Rowell, Roger M.
wood, product, fire retardant, hardness, heat, pressure, hexanediol dimethacrylate, hexanediol diacrylate, impregnate, indent resistance Wood products impregnated with from 30 to 80% of a polymerizable monomer selected from the group consisting of hexanediol diacrylate and hexanediol dimethacrylate have excellent indent resistance. The wood products are impregnated with the monomer solution by placing the wood under a vacuum to remove air, contacting the wood with a monomer solution containing a polymerizable hexanediol diacrylate and/or hexanediol dimethacrylate monomer and from 0.5 to about 2 percent of a thermally activated free radical source as a polymerization initiator for a period sufficient to achieve the desired polymer loading. The wood is then heated under pressure to polymerize or cure the monomers.06-09-1993Resource Management and Use
Strain of Gypsy Moth Virus with Enhanced Polyhedra and Budded Virus ProductionAbandoned5,882,913Slavicek, James M.
Hayes-Plazolles, Nancy
virus, strain, gypsy moth, polyhedra, LaNPV, budded, viral insecticide, ATCC VR2577, Lymantria disparAn isolated of the gypsy moth virus Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV) that is characterized by enhanced polyhedra production, enhanced budded virus production, and stable polyhedra production during serial passage in cell culture is disclosed. The isolate, designated LdNPV 122b, has been deposited at the American Tissue Culture Collection and has been assigned number ATCC VR2577. Also disclosed is a viral insecticide having an insecticidally effective amount of polyhedra produced in cell culture. A method for protecting plants from insects against which LdNPV is toxic is disclosed.08-07-1997Invasive Species
Method of Isolating Strains of the Lymantria Dispar Nuclear Polyhedrosis VirusAbandoned5,853,982Slavicek, James M.
strain, virus, isolate, nuclear polyhedrosis virus, gypsy moth, larvae, infect, budded, harvest, bioreactor, infection cycle, occlusion, Lymantria disparA method of isolating a gypsy moth virus that maintains normal levels of viral occlusion when produced in an insect cell line is disclosed. This method comprises the steps of cycles of infecting gypsy moth larvae with a strain of gypsy moth virus of interest, harvesting the larvae to collect budded virus, infecting a cell line capable of propagation in a bioreactor and then harvesting the virus. One repeats the infection cycle until one has enriched for a gypsy moth virus strain with normal levels of occlusion.10-03-1997Invasive Species
Localized Notch Reinforcement for Wooden BeamsAbandoned5,852,909Soltis, Lawrence A.
Ross, Robert J.
Rammer, Douglas R.
fiber reinforcement, tensile strength fibers, wooden structure members, beam, adhesive, fiber patchA localized fiber reinforcement places strong tensile strength fibers across a hypothetical split line near notches in beams to curtail split propagation caused by cross-grain tension that may otherwise significantly reduce the strength of a beam used as a spanning member. An adhesive coated patch may be applied after a notch is cut in the beam or fibers may be attached to a beam at a factory near the location of an anticipated notching.03-01-1994Resource Management and Use
Passive Self-contained Camera Protection and Method for Fire DocumentationAbandoned5,835,806Kautz, James L.
camera box, fire, container, protective liner, insulationA self-contained camera enclosure provides protection from intermittent exposure to high temperatures and fire. The protection is provided without connection to electricity or water, and is practical for use in remote areas. Protection is provided by a heat-reflecting outer box containing a liner of insulating material and a frozen-liquid cooling system. A double-pane window using an outer heat-resistant glass and an inner hot mirror allow visible light enter the enclosed camera while simultaneously blocking heat transmission. To accommodate remote camera equipment, a four-ply thermal insulation is used to protect the cable extending from the enclosure. The enclosure can accommodate different models and types of camera equipment.02-26-1997Resource Management and Use
Method of Removing Color From Kraft Wood PulpsAbandoned5,834,301Jeffries, Thomas W.
Grabski, Anthony C.
Patel, Rajesh N.
Elegir, Graziano
Szakacs, George
xylanase, kraft pulp, chromophores, color, NRRL 18982, StreptomycesA method of removing color from wood pulp is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of preparing a wood pulp, treating the wood pulp with the xylanase wherein the xylanase is capable of releasing chromophores from the pulp and extracting the wood pulp to remove chromophores. Also, disclosed are substantially purified preparations of xylanase enzyme from bacterial isolates.03-25-1992Resource Management and Use
Oxidative Delignification of Wood Pulp or Fibers Using Transitional Metal-Substituted PolyoxometalatesAbandoned5,824,189Weinstock, Ira A.
Hill, Craig L.
wood pulp, polyoxometalate, exposure, reoxidizing, bleaching, delignification, transition metalsA method for delignifying wood pulp and fiber is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of obtaining a wood pulp and exposing the wood pulp to a polyoxometalate of the formula [V1MomWnNboTap(TM)qXrOs]x- where l is 0-18, m is 0-40, n is 0-40, o is 0-10, p is 0-10, q is 0-9, r is 0-6, TM is a d-electron-containing transition metal ion, and X is a heteroatom, which is a p or d block element, where l+m+n+o+p≧4, l+m+q>0 and s is sufficiently large that x>0. The exposure is under conditions wherein the polyoxometalate is reduced. In a preferable form of the invention, the method additionally comprises the step of reoxidizing the polyoxometalate.08-28-1992Resource Management and Use
Fungal Inocolum PreparationAbandoned5,786,188Lamar, Richard T.
Lestan, Domen
Smith, Christine E.
Dietrich, Diane M.
fungal inoculum, pellet, propagules, corn meal, corn steep liquorA fungal inoculum for bioaugmentation of soils contaminated with hazardous compounds or spawn for use in the edible mushroom industry is disclosed. A mechanically pelleted substrate that contains both structural and nutritive components forms the core of the fungal inoculum. The pelleted substrate core is coated with a hydrophilic material in which fungal propagules are dispersed. The biological potential of the fungal inocula can be enhanced by formulating the material composition of fungal inocula to meet the specific requirements of a particular fungus.06-05-1996Resource Management and Use
Localized Notch Reinforcement for Wooden BeamsAbandoned5,720,143Soltis, Lawrence A.
Ross, Robert J.
Rammer, Douglas R.
localized, fiber reinforcement, notches, split propagation, cross-grain tension, beams, grain, strengthA localized fiber reinforcement places strong tensile strength fibers across a hypothetical split line near notches in beams to curtail split propagation caused by cross-grain tension that may otherwise significantly reduce the strength of a beam used as a spanning member. An adhesive coated patch may be applied after a notch is cut in the beam or fibers may be attached to a beam at a factory near the location of an anticipated notching.03-01-1994Resource Management and Use
4-Allylanisole Analog Scolytid RepellentsAbandoned5,695,807Hayes, Jane L.
Strom, Brian L.
Roton, Lawrence
Ingram, Leonard L.
repellents, 4-allylanisole (4AA), scolytidae, infestation, conifers, insect, host trees4-allylanisole, and seven analogs, anisole, allylbenzene, 4-isopropylanisole, p-anisaldehyde, ethylbenzene, cumene and 4-methoxyacetophenone are demonstrated to be effective repellents for scolytid infestation. Conifers, a particular target for the scolytids, are protected by application of the compounds, either directly or suspended in a carrier.08-31-1993Resource Management and Use
Oxidative Delignification of Wood or Wood Pulp by Transition Metal-Substituted PolyoxometalatesAbandoned5,695,606Weinstock, Ira A.
Hill, Craig L
Atalla, Rajai H.
polyoxometalate, reoxidizing, bleaching, lignin, kraft pulp, delignification, transition metalsA method for delignifying wood pulp and fiber is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of obtaining a wood pulp and exposing the wood pulp to a polyoxometalate of the formula [VlMomWnNboTap(TM)qXrOs]x- where l is 0-18, m is 0-40, n is 0-40, o is 0-10, p is 0-10, q is 0-9, r is 0-6, TM is a d-electron-containing transition metal ion, and X is a heteroatom, which is a p or d block element, where l+m+n+o+p≧4, l+m+q>0 and s is sufficiently large that x>0. The exposure is under conditions wherein the polyoxometalate is reduced. In a preferable form of the invention, the method additionally comprises the step of reoxidizing the polyoxometalate.08-28-1992Resource Management and Use
Oxidative Delignification of Wood or Wood Pulp by Transition Metal-Substituted PolyoxometalatesAbandoned5,695,605Weinstock, Ira A.
Hill, Craig L.
Atalla, Rajai H.
oxidative delignification, wood pulp, polyoxometalate, transition metals, bleaching, ligninA method for delignifying wood pulp and fiber is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of obtaining a wood pulp and exposing the wood pulp to a polyoxometalate of the formula [VlMomWnNboTap(TM)qXrOs]x- where l is 0-18, m is 0-40, n is 0-40, o is 0-10, p is 0-10, q is 0-9, r is 0-6, TM is a d-electron-containing transition metal ion, and X is a heteroatom, which is a p or d block element, where l+m+n+o+p≧4, l+m+q>0 and s is sufficiently large that x>0. The exposure is under conditions wherein the polyoxometalate is reduced. In a preferable form of the invention, the method additionally comprises the step of reoxidizing the polyoxometalate.08-28-1992Resource Management and Use
Hardened and Fire Retardant Wood ProductsAbandoned5,683,820Fuller, B. Shannon
Ellis, W. Dale
Rowell, Roger M.
fire retardant, wood, impregnated, hexanediol diacrylate, hexanediol dimethacrylate, monomers, hardnessWood products impregnated with from 30 to 80% of a polymerizable monomer selected from the group consisting of hexanediol diacrylate and hexanediol dimethacrylate have excellent indent resistance. The wood products are impregnated with the monomer solution by placing the wood under a vacuum to remove air, contacting the wood with a monomer solution containing a polymerizable hexanediol diacrylate and/or hexanediol dimethacrylate monomer and from 0.5 to about 2 percent of a thermally activated free radical source as a polymerization initiator for a period sufficient to achieve the desired polymer loading. The wood is then heated under pressure to polymerize or cure the monomers.06-09-1993Resource Management and Use
Hardened and Fire Retardant Wood ProductsAbandoned5,609,915Fuller, B. Shannon
Ellis, W. Dale
Rowell, Roger M.
fire retardant, hardened, hexanediol diacrylate, hexanediol dimethacrylate, impregnated, polymerize, wood productWood products impregnated with from 30 to 80% of a polymerizable monomer selected from the group consisting of hexanediol diacrylate and hexanediol dimethacrylate have excellent indent resistance. The wood products are impregnated with the monomer solution by placing the wood under a vacuum to remove air, contacting the wood with a monomer solution containing a polymerizable hexanediol diacrylate and/or hexanediol dimethacrylate monomer and from 0.5 to about 2 percent of a thermally activated free radical source as a polymerization initiator for a period sufficient to achieve the desired polymer loading. The wood is then heated under pressure to polymerize or cure the monomers.02-02-1996Resource Management and Use
Method for Fiber Loading a Chemical CompoundAbandonedRE35,460Klungness, John H.
Caulfield, Daniel F.
Sachs, Irving B.
Sykes, Marguerite S.
Tan, Freya
Shilts, Richard W.
fibers, cellulose, hollow interior, filler-containing, pulp, calcium carbonateThe present invention relates to a method for loading a chemical compound within the fibers of a fibrous material and to the fibrous materials produced by the method. In the method, a fibrous cellulose material is provided which consists of a plurality of elongated fibers having a fiber wall surrounding a hollow interior. The fibrous material has a moisture content such that the level of water ranges from 40-95% of the weight of the fibrous material and the water is positioned substantially within the hollow interior of the fibers and within the fiber walls of the fibers. A chemical is added to the fibrous material in a manner such that the chemical is disposed in the water present in the fibrous material. The fibrous material is then contacted with a gas which is reactive with the chemical to form a water insoluble chemical compound. The method provides a fibrous material having a chemical compound loaded within the hollow interiors and within the fiber walls of the plurality of fibers.03-06-1991Resource Management and Use
Break-In-Resistant Wood Panel DoorAbandoned5,575,117Soltis, Lawrence A.
Ross, Robert J.
von Segen, William W.
wood, panel, door, reinforce, fiber glass, grainA wooden panel door reinforced against attempted break-in contains layers of fiberglass mat and decorative wooden facing strip bonded to the doorjamb and stiles. The stiles and doorjamb are constructed from wood with grain that runs primarily in a single direction, and reinforcing these stiles and doorjambs against impact can be achieved by bonding to them a fiberglass mat, which contains fibers running in transverse directions. The fiberglass mat is in turn covered by a decorative wooden facing strip layer.03-01-1994Resource Management and Use
Gypsy Moth Genotype AssayAbandoned5,571,672Slavicek, James M.
Garner, Karen J.
Schreiber, David E.
gypsy moth, strains, assays, infestations, RAPD, DNA, Lymantria disparA method for determining the genotype of a gypsy moth is disclosed. This method begins with the steps of isolating genomic DNA from a candidate gypsy moth, exposing that DNA to an oligonucleotide primer selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs:3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or the complement thereof and sequences sufficiently similar to SEQ ID NOs:4 and 5 or the complement thereof under conditions permitting amplification of the genomic DNA, and comparing the amplified DNA with amplified DNA produced by control samples. A genotype identity is assigned to the candidate moth according to which control sample has amplified fragments similar to those in the candidate sample. A method for obtaining DNA primers for determining the genotype of candidate moths is also disclosed. This method comprises the steps of obtaining the DNA sequence of fragments FS-1, FS-2, or FS-3 from both the Asian moth DNA and North American/European moth DNA and analyzing the sequences to obtain primers capable of priming an amplified product of different size in Asian and North American/European gypsy moth DNA samples.09-20-1994Resource Management and Use
Method and Apparatus for Evaluating Fold Endurance and Surface Adhesion of Sheet MaterialsAbandoned5,566,570Hankel, Steven G.
Gunderson, Dennis E.
Scott, C. Timonthy
Gleisner, Jr., Roland L.
fold, surface adhesion, flexural durabilityAn apparatus and method uses vacuum restraint, or other pressure differenl, to hold the ends of a sheet specimen to two opposing surfaces, thereby creating a fold in the specimen. As the opposing surfaces cycle along a parallel axis in opposite directions, the fold repeatedly rolls through a specific region of the specimen. The spacing between the opposing surfaces can be adjusted to increase or to decrease the radius of the fold. The velocity of the fold and the number cycles also can be controlled precisely. After repeated movement of the fold, the adhesion of surface treatments, coatings or printing on the specimen substrate begins to break down. Additionally, the integrity of the substrate itself may begin to deteriorate, if it is susceptible to deterioration and to varying degrees depending upon the susceptibility. The extent to which the specimen coating is degraded and substrate integrity reduced is a function of spacing, fold velocity and number of cycles.07-21-1994Resource Management and Use
Method and Apparatus for Immunological Diagnosis of Fungal Decay in WoodAbandoned5,563,040Clausen, Carol A.
Green, III, Frederick
wood, fungal decay, hemicellulose, basidomycetes, brown-rot decay, monoclonal antibodyA method and apparatus for detecting incipient fungal decay in wood is described. Anti-xylanase monoclonal antibody is immobilized in a defined capture zone to a polyester assay substrate. Anti-hemicellulase polyclonal-labeled latex particles (carrier zone) are applied at a position distant from the capture zone. Wood extract to be tested is applied to the end of the polyester substrate and allowed to flow laterally through the carrier zone and the capture zone. A positive test results when antigen in the wood extract is complexed by the labeled polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to form an observable particle complex.03-21-1994Invasive Species
Resource Management and Use
Wildland Fire and Fuels
Method of Making Resilient BattAbandoned5,554,238English, Brent W.
insulation, cellulosic, thermoplastic, loft, fiber glass, batt, flexible, fibersBatt style insulation comprised of cellulosic and thermoplastic material and a method of making such insulation. A blend of cellulosic material and thermoplastic fibrous material, wherein the latter comprises between 3%-15% of the blend by weight, is formed by a method such as air-laying into a low density, high loft mat. The surface of the mat is flame-treated to melt the thermoplastic component on the surface, forming a skin which keeps the cellulosic component intact. The thermoplastic component in the interior of the mat remains unmelted, thereby providing the mat with a spring-back characteristic which allows the mat to retain most of its original shape and loft even after it has been compressed for shipping. A facing sheet can be applied to the surface of the mat, as is done with conventional fiberglass batt-style insulation.11-22-1993Resource Management and Use
One Step Process for Imparting Decay Resistance and Fire Retardancy to Wood ProductsAbandoned5,185,214LeVan, Susan L.
DeGroot, Rodney C.
decay, cellulose, impregnating, tertiary, fire retardant, quaternary ammonium A one step process for imparting both decay resistance and fire retardancy to wood and cellulosic materials by impregnating the products with a treatment solution composed of a water soluble mixture of a tertiary and quaternary ammonium preservative compound and an organic phosphate fire retardant compound.06-12-1991Resource Management and Use
Oxidative Delignification of Wood or Wood Pulp By Transition Metal-Substituted PolyoxometalatesAbandoned5,552,019Weinstock, Ira A.
Hill, Craig L.
wood pulp, bleaching, delignification, transition metals, polyoxometalateA method for delignifying wood pulp and fiber is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of obtaining a wood pulp and exposing the wood pulp to a polyoxometalate of the formula[VlMomWnNboTap(TM)qXrOs]x- where l is 0-18, m is . 0-40, n is 0-40, o is 0-10, p is 0-10, q is 0-9, r is 0-6, TM is a d-electron-containing transition metal ion, and X is a heteroatom, which is a p or d block element, where l+m+n+o+p≧4, l+m+q>0 and s is sufficiently large that x>0. The exposure is under conditions wherein the polyoxometalate is reduced. In a preferable form of the invention, the method additionally comprises the step of reoxidizing the polyoxometalate.08-28-1992Resource Management and Use
Oxidation of Lignin and Polysaccharides Mediated by Polyoxometalate Treatment of Wood PulpAbandoned5,549,789Atalla, Rajai H.
Weinstock, Ira A.
Hill, Craig L.
Reiner, Richard S.
lignin, polysaccharides, wood pulp, degradation, bleaching, polyoxometalate, delignification A method for oxidative degradation of lignin and polysaccharide fragments dissolved during polyoxometalate delignification or bleaching of wood pulp, wood fiber or pulp obtained from a non-woody plant. The method comprises the steps of obtaining a spent polyoxometalate bleaching solution containing a polyoxometalate of the formula [[VlMomWnNboTap(TM)qXrOs]x- where 1 is 0-18, m is 0-40, n is 0-40, o is 0-10, p is 0-10, q is 0-9, r is 0-6, TM is a d-electron-containing transition metal ion, and X is a heteroatom which is p or d block element, provided that l+m+n+o+p≧4, l+m+q>0 and s is sufficiently large that x>0, and heating the solution in the presence of an oxidant under conditions wherein the dissolved organic compounds are oxidatively degraded to volatile organic compounds and water.08-28-1992Resource Management and Use
Hydroxymethylated Resorcinol Coupling Agent and Method for Bonding WoodAbandoned5,543,487Vick, Charles B.
Richter, Klaus H.
River, Bryan H.
thermoset, hydroxymethylated resorcinol (HMR), adhesive, phenol-resorcinol, aqueosA hydroxymethylated resorcinol coupling agent is provided, including a hydroxymethylated resorcinol as an active ingredient, which enables commercial thermosetting adhesives such as bisphenol-A epoxy, phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde, emulsion-polymer isocyanate, phenol-formaldehyde, resorcinol-formaldehyde and other resins of similar chemical nature to develop strong and durable bonds to a variety of untreated and preservatively treated woods. The resulting bonds to wood withstand delaminating stresses that occur with weather and water in exterior environments.01-19-1994Resource Management and Use
Delignification of Lignocellulosic Materials with Peroxymonophosphoric AcidAbandoned5,529,663Springer, Edward L.
delignification, peroxymonophosphoric acid, bleaching, lignocellulosics, woodDisclosed is a method for the delignification of lignocellulosic materials with acidic solutions of peroxymonophosphoric acid for the delignification and brightening of cellulosic pulps in bleaching; for the production of cellulosic pulps for use in paper making and in regenerated cellulose products; for enhancing the properties of recycled cellulosic fibers and for use in animal feeds and other products where removal or degradation of lignin is beneficial.04-03-1995Resource Management and Use
4-Allylanisole Analog Scolytid RepellentsAbandoned5,518,757Hayes, Jane L.
Strom, Brian L.
Roton, Lawrence
Ingram, Jr., Leonard L.
scolytids, pine beetle, conifer, 4-allylanisole4-allylanisole, and three analogs, anisole, allylbenzene, and 4-isopropylanisole are demonstrated to be effective repellents for scolytid infestation. Conifers, a particular target for the scolytids, are protected by application of the compounds, either directly or suspended in a carrier.08-31-1993Resource Management and Use
Apparatus for Impregnating WoodAbandoned5,512,098French, Nicholas A.
Ellis, W. Dale
Rowell, Roger M.
impregnating wood, veneerApparatus for impregnating wood veneer with a liquid impregnant comprises a container having an upper chamber communicated to a lower impregnation chamber. A clamping mechanism is releasably engageable to a peripheral region of the wood veneer and is cooperably received in the upper chamber in a manner to suspend the wood veneer in the impregnation chamber. An elevator overlies the container and is releasably connectable to the clamping mechanism for lowering the clamping mechanism into the upper chamber to suspend the wood veneer in the impregnation chamber therebelow. The clamping mechanism is disconnected from the elevator such that the clamping mechanism remains in the upper chamber during impregnation of the wood veneer with liquid impregnant. The impregnation chamber is evacuated by a vacuum pump after the wood veneer is suspended therein, and liquid impregnant is introduced from a storage tank to the impregnation chamber about the wood veneer. A venting valve is openable to establish ambient pressure in the impregnation chamber to impregnate the wood veneer with the liquid impregnant therein. Following impregnation, the clamping mechanism is reconnected to the elevator to enable removal of the impregnated wood veneer from the container.08-02-1994Resource Management and Use
Bolted Wood ConnectionsAbandoned5,501,054Soltis, Lawrence A.
Ross, Robert J.
reinforcing material, wood, fiber glass, epoxy, bolted connectionsA reinforced structural member, a process for manufacturing the reinforced structural member, and a method of connecting the reinforced structural members to one another are presented. The reinforced structural member includes a reinforcing material which is bonded to a wooden substrate in areas of anticipated connection of the reinforced structural member. The reinforcing material may comprise a fiberglass sheet, a wood laminate sheet, a coating of epoxy resin, or a combination of any of the foregoing.03-01-1994Resource Management and Use
Method of Removing Color From Wood Pulp Using Xylanase From Streptomyces Roseiscleroticus NRRL-B-11019Abandoned5,498,534Jeffries, Thomas W.
Grabski, Anthony C.
Patel, Rajesh N.
Elegir, Graziano
Szakacs, George
xylanase, chromophores, xylanase enzymes, kraft pulp, pulping, bleaching, Streptomyces roseiscleroticus NRRL B-11019A method of removing color from wood pulp is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of preparing a wood pulp, treating the wood pulp with the xylanase wherein the xylanase is capable of releasing chromophores from the pulp and extracting the wood pulp to remove chromophores. Also disclosed are substantially purified preparations of xylanase enzymes from bacterial isolates. The xylanase is preferrably isolated xyl 3 obtained from Streptomyces roseiscleroticus NRRL B-11019, wherein xyl 3 has a molecular weight of approximately 21 kD as determined by SDS-gel electrophoresis and a pH optima of pH 5.0-7.0.03-25-1992Resource Management and Use
Solid Phase Bioremediation Methods Using Lignin-Degrading FungiAbandoned5,476,788Lamar, Richard T.
Dietrich, Diane M.
Glaser, John A.
lignin-degrading fungi, pentachlorophenol (PCP), solid-phase, bioremediation A solid-phase bioremediation method utilizing naturally occurring lignin-degrading fungi. The method includes inoculating a field-contaminated, nonsterile soil or wood having a halogenated hydrocarbon contaminant with an inoculum containing one or more lignin-degrading fungi and a lignocellulosic substrate, and degrading the contaminant to less toxic degradation products.06-10-1993Resource Management and Use
Treatment of Wood and Other Lignocellulosic Materials with IodatesAbandoned5,470,614Chen, George C.
Rowell, Roger M.
iodates, lignocellulosic materials, leaching, decayThis invention is a method for the protection of wood and other lignocellulosic materials from attack by micro-organisms with the use of iodates. The method consists of treating wood or other lignocellulosic material by soaking it in a solution of iodate for a period of time ranging from three hours to seven days at temperatures between 20° C. and 50° C. The treated material is then removed from the solution and dried. Wood treated with this method shows resistance to attack by wood-degrading micro-organisms. Furthermore, the iodates are resistant to leaching from the wood and other lignocellulosic materials after such treatment.03-02-1994Resource Management and Use
In-Line Safety ShackleAbandoned5,466,082Sherar, James R.
safety shackle, cable, overload, sheer pin, logging, stressA linear in-line safety shackle device includes a first connecting member engaging a first cable, a second connecting member engaging a second cable, and a device for releasibly securing the first connecting member with the second connecting member. Further provided is at least one safety cable which prevents premature complete separation of the first connecting member from the second connecting member.11-30-1993Resource Management and Use
Method of Protecting Plants from Insects by Applying Gypsy Moth Virus with Enhanced Polyhedra Production StabilityAbandoned5,462,732Slavicek, James M.
Mercer, Melissa J.
virus, polyhedral production, insecticide, gypsy moth, LdNPV, Lymantria disparA virus having the identifying characteristics of ATCC VR2396 is disclosed. This virus has the trait of enhanced polyhedra production stability and resists forming a few polyhedra mutant virus. A method of protecting crops from insects comprising applying an insecticidally effective amount of virus having the identifying characteristics of ATCC VR2396 is also disclosed.02-08-1993Invasive Species
Method of Pulping Wood Chips with a Fungi Using Sulfite Salt-Treated Wood ChipAbandoned5,460,697Akhtar, Masood
Attridge, Michael C.
Koning, John W.
Kirk, T. Kent
wood pulp, paper, fungi, sulfite salt, biopulp, bioreactor, white-rot fungus, pine, aspen, sodium bisulfite A method of making a wood pulp is disclosed. Wood is first chipped into wood chips. The wood chips are treated with an amount of sulfite salt sufficient to inhibit indigenous microorganism growth. The treated wood chips are introduced into a bioreactor and inoculated with a culture of white-rot fungus. The wood chips are incubated under conditions favoring the propagation of white-rot fungus and then mechanically pulped.10-09-1992Resource Management and Use
Method for Pulping Wood Chips Using Separate Alkali and Peroxymonosulfate TreatmentsAbandoned5,433,825Minor, James L.
Springer, Edward L.
pulp, alkaline liquor, peroxymonosulfate, delignification, oxidize The present invention is directed to a process for pulping of lignocellulosic materials. In the process, the ligoncellulose material is impregnated with an alkaline liquor. The lignocellulose material is maintained in the alkaline liquor for a period of time sufficient to permit infusion of the alkaline liquor and swelling of the lignocellulose material. The alkaline liquor is then drained from the lignocellulose material and the lignocellulose material may be washed with water, although such washing step is not required. The alkaline impregnated lignocellulose material is then immersed in an acidic oxidizing solution comprising peroxymonosulfate anion. The lignocellulose material is maintained in the oxidizing solution for a time sufficient to oxidize at least some of the lignin of the lignocellulose material. Thereafter, a second alkaline liquor is used to solubilize the oxidized lignin.02-06-1992Resource Management and Use
Gypsy Moth Virus with Enhanced Polyhedra Production StabilityAbandoned5,420,031Slavicek, James M.
Mercer, Melissa J.
virus, gypsy moth, polyhedral production, LdNPV, insecticide, Lymantria disparA virus having the identifying characteristics of ATCC VR2396 is disclosed. This virus has the trait of enhanced polyhedra production stability and resists forming a few polyhedra mutant virus. A method of protecting crops from insects comprising applying an insecticidally effective amount of virus having the identifying characteristics of ATCC VR2396 is also disclosed.02-08-1993Invasive Species
Method for Creating Plastic SliversAbandoned5,419,500English, Brent W.
plastic, composite, cutter headThe invention concerns itself with an apparatus and method for producing plastic slivers from plastic infeed stock. The splinters produced are especially suitable for use in plastic or cellulosic/plastic composites. The invention will readily accommodate a broad range of types and forms of plastic infeed stock, including waste plastic, whether or not it has been cleaned and sorted into homogeneous feed streams. The method cuts plastic into slivers by firmly holding the plastic infeed stock and slowly feeding it against rotating cutter heads. The feed mechanism automatically adjusts to varying amounts of feed stock. The slivers need no further processing before they can be used in composites.12-10-1993Resource Management and Use
Combination Cellulosic/Thermoplastic Batt Insulation and a Method of Production for Such InsulationAbandoned5,418,031English, Brent W.
batt insulation, cellulosic material, thermoplastic, polyethylene, density, loft, flame treated, fiberglass Batt style insulation comprised of cellulosic and thermoplastic material and a method of making such insulation. A blend of cellulosic material and thermoplastic fibrous material, wherein the latter comprises between 3%-15% of the blend by weight, is formed by a method such as air-laying into a low density, high loft mat. The surface of the mat is flame-treated to melt the thermoplastic component on the surface, forming a skin which keeps the cellulosic component intact. The thermoplastic component in the interior of the mat remains unmelted, thereby providing the mat with a spring-back characteristic which allows the mat to retain most of its original shape and loft even after it has been compressed for shipping. A facing sheet can be applied to the surface of the mat, as is done with conventional fiberglass batt-style insulation.11-22-1993Resource Management and Use
Alkaline Method for Dissolving CelluloseAbandoned5,410,034Isogai, Akira
Atalla, Rajai H.
cellulose, alkali, aqueousThe present invention provides a cellulose solution prepared by dissolving a cellulose which has not previously been subject to explosive disruption at atmospheric pressures in an aqueous alkali solution which can be shaped into a fiber, film or other article or applied to the surface or treatment of other materials by coating, dipping, or other suitable methods.02-24-1994Resource Management and Use
Method and Apparatus for Controlling Animals With Electronic FencingAbandoned5,408,956Quigley, Thomas M.
Tiedemann, Arthur R.
Thomas, Jack W.
animal control, electronic fencing, transmitters, ear tag, electrical stimulus, exclusion zone, cattleAn electronic fence is utilized to control animal access as an alternative to conventional posts and barbed wire fences. The electronic fencing includes stationary field transmitters with variable ranges placed around the perimeter of an accessible area. Each animal in the area wears a small ear tag receiver. When an animal enters an exclusion zone, the receiver triggers an audible tone, and then shortly thereafter an electrical stimulus. The audible tones and electrical stimuli may be repeated three more times at four second intervals until the animal exits the exclusion zone. If the animal hasn't responded, a safety device in the ear tag locks up or disables the unit to prevent the animal from receiving further stimuli. A remote stationary unlock transmitter located in areas frequented by the animals, such as salt licks, mineral or water sources, unlocks any ear tags which have become locked and thus improves the integrity of the system. The ear tag may also be locked by a portable hand held transmitter without stimulation to the animal. The hand held transmitter may also be utilized to unlock the ear tags and to test the system by providing an electronic stimulus to the animal for the purpose of moving selected animals through the exclusion zone when desired.03-21-1993Resource Management and Use
Scolytid RepellantAbandoned5,403,863Hayes, Jane L.
Strom, Brian L.
Roton, Lawrence
Ingram, Jr., Leonard L.
bark beetle, Scolytidae, repellant, 4-allylanisole (4AA), conifer, verbenone 4-allylanisole is demonstrated to be an effective repellant for scolytid infestation. Conifers, a particular target for the scolytids, are protected by application of 4-allylanisole, either directly or suspended in a carrier, in concentrations as low as 0.01 percent. The repellant can be administered in conjunction with other repellants and insecticides.08-31-1993Resource Management and Use
Method and Apparatus for In Situ Evaluation of Wooden MembersAbandoned5,396,799Ross, Robert J.
DeGroot, Rodney C.
Geske, Earl A.
Nelson, William J.
Malinauskas, Vyto C.
Cuevas, Diego O.
wooden member, in situ, acoustic wave, sound speed, attenuation, nondestructive, damage detectionA method for the non-destructive evaluation of the integrity of wooden members, in situ, for example, embedded in the soil, employing the reflection of an acoustic wave off of the embedded end of the wooden member. The reflection is caused by the discontinuity in acoustic properties between wood and the supporting medium. The method allows the measurement, at one end of the member, of substantially the entire length of the wooden member without its removal. The acoustic wave is monitored in time and amplitude to provide indications of sound speed and attenuation, measurements which apparently are not unduly affected by coupling losses between the wooden member and its supporting matrix. These measured values may be empirically linked in an equation providing the integrity of the wooden member.07-13-1992Resource Management and Use
Xylanase From Streptomyces Roseiscleroticus NRRL-11019 for Removing Color From Kraft Wood PulpsAbandoned5,369,024Jeffries, Thomas
Grabski, Anthony
Patel, Rajesh
color, wood pulp, xylanase, chromophores, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pulping, secondary fiber, bleaching, NRRL-11019, Streptomyces roseiscleroticusA method of removing color from wood pulp is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of preparing a wood pulp, treating the wood pulp with the xylanase wherein the xylanase is capable of releasing chromophores from the pulp and extracting the wood pulp to remove chromophores. In a preferred form of the invention, the wood pulp is a kraft pulp and the xylanase is selected from the group consisting of xyl 1, xyl 2, xyl 3 and xyl 4. These xylanases are obtained from Streptomyces roseiscleroticus NRRL-11019.03-25-1992Resource Management and Use
Biological Treatment for Controlling Wood Deteriorating FungiAbandoned5,356,624 Croan, Suki
Highley, Terry
wood degrading fungi, nonsporulating, Streptomyces rimosus, growth, retarding, SC-36, NRRL 21063, basidiospore, Conidia germination, boron, metabolites, ethylene glycolA method for retarding the growth of wood-degrading fungi by treating the wood with an effective amount of viable, nonsporulating Streptomyces rimosus SC-36 NRRL 21063.04-23-1993Resource Management and Use
Method for Forming Structural components from Dry Wood Fiber FurnishAbandoned5,314,654Gunderson, Dennis
Gleisner, Roland
dry forming, adhesive coated, wood fibers, air stream, mold, vaccum deposition, uniform densityAn improved method and apparatus for dry forming adhesive coated wood fibers in an airstream in a particular mold apparatus. The invention includes a particular sequence of steps and related apparatus, and permits the manufacturer of a mat of differing cross-sectional shapes but of uniform density. The invention includes the advantageous steps of final curing of the mat off of the main molding apparatus, thus achieving efficiencies in use.03-25-1991Resource Management and Use
Method and Apparatus for Evaluating the Drying Properties of Un-Dried WoodAbandoned5,307,679 Ross, Robert
drying, wood, un-dried, degrade, acoustic pulse, grain, accelerometer, propensity, sortedA method of evaluating un-dried lumber for its propensity to degrade, during drying couples an acoustic pulse to un-dried lumber and measures the speed of the propagating of the pulse through the lumber. Preferably, the pulse is directed transversely to the lumber's grain. The pulses may be generated by a calibrated weight striking the lumber's surface and detected at two points on the lumber by means of acoustically coupled accelerometers. A timer, triggering on similar portions of the acoustic pulse as detected at the two points provides the necessary information to deduce speed. A speed threshold is determined empirically by studying samples of the lumber type and the speed of acoustic pulses through them and drying them to determine their propensity to degrade.03-25-1992Resource Management and Use
Delignification of Wood Pulp by Vanadium-Substitute PolyoxometalatesAbandoned5,302,248 Weinstock, Ira
Hill, Craig
wood pulp, delignifying, exposing, polyoxometalate, reoxidizing, vanadium-substituted, bleaching, ligninA method for delignifying wood pulp is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of obtaining a wood pulp and exposing the wood pulp to a polyoxometalate of the formula [Vn MomWl Nbo Tap (TM)q(MG)rOs]x- where n is 1-18, m is 0-40, l is 0-40, o is 0-10, p is 0-10, q≦6, r≦6, TM is a d-electron-containing transition metal ion, and MG is a main group ion, provided that n+m+o+l+p.≧4 and s is sufficiently large that x>o. The exposure is under conditions wherein the polyoxometalate is reduced. In a preferable form of the invention, the method additionally comprises the step of reoxidizing the polyoxometalate.08-28-1992Resource Management and Use
One Step Method for the Preparation of Difurfuryl DiaminesAbandoned5,292,903 Conner, Anthony
Holfinger, Michael
Hill, Charles Jr.
McKillip, William
Reinmann, Rolf
synthetic, synthesis, diamino difurfuryl, reaction, difurfuryl, carbonyl-containing compound, amine groupA synthetic procedure for the synthesis of diamino difurfuryl compounds via a one-step, low-temperature reaction that does not require additional steps for the protection of the amino functionalities in the reactant or the deprotection of the amino functionalities in an intermediate product to give the final product is disclosed. The importance of acid concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time to the one step method are disclosed.08-22-1991Resource Management and Use
Methods and Apparatus for Making Grids From FibersAbandoned5,277,854 Hunt, John
grids, open cells, fibers, wood fibers, waste paper, mixed waste materials, screen, plurality, elastomeric pads, compressedMethod and apparatus to form grids of open cells from fibers, especially wood fibers and fibers from waste paper and mixed waste materials. The invention utilizes a screen carrying a plurality of elastomeric pads of predetermined sizes arranged thereon in predetermined spaced relation to each other. The fiber is deposited between the pads but not above the pads. The deposited fibers and the pads are compressed normal to the screen, which causes the fiber in the spaces between the pads to be consolidated both normal and parallel to the screen, resulting in a open grid having cells of the shape of the pads. Numerous variations are provided including several continuous production embodiments. The invention uses state of the art technology for virtually all aspects.06-06-1991Resource Management and Use
Canker-Resistant Aspen Tree 70-144-30-68-1AbandonedPP08,488 Anderson, Neil
Ostry, Michael E.
aspen tree, canker, hypoxylon, fungus, hypoxylon mammatum, infection, asexual propagation An aspen tree having rapid growth, good form, aesthetic appearance, and resistance to Hypoxylon canker caused by the fungus Hypoxylon mammatum03-25-1991Resource Management and Use
Method for Fiber Loading a Chemical CompoundAbandoned5,223,090 Klungness, John
Caulfield, Daniel
Sachs, Irving
Skykes, Marguerite
Tan, Freya
Shilts, Richard
loading, calcium carbonate, cellulose material, fiber wall, hollow interior, pulpingThe present invention relates to a method for loading a chemical compound within the fibers of a fibrous material and to the fibrous materials produced by the method. In the method, a fibrous cellulose material is provided which consists of a plurality of elongated fibers having a fiber wall surrounding a hollow interior. The fibrous material has a moisture content such that the level of water ranges from 40-95% of the weight of the fibrous material and the water is positioned substantially within the hollow interior of the fibers and within the fiber walls of the fibers. A chemical is added to the fibrous material in a manner such that the chemical is disposed in the water present in the fibrous material. The fibrous material is then contacted with a gas which is reactive with the chemical to form a water insoluble chemical compound. The method provides a fibrous material having a chemical compound loaded within the hollow interiors and within the fiber walls of the plurality of fibers.03-06-1991Resource Management and Use
Apparatus for Forming Structural Components from Dry Wood Fiber FurnishAbandoned5,198,236 Gunderson, Dennis
Gleisner, Roland
adhesive, wood fibers, wood, mold, fiberboard, mandrel An improved apparatus for dry forming adhesive coated wood fibers in an airstream in a particular mold apparatus. The invention permits the manufacture of a mat of differing cross-sectional shapes but of uniform density. The invention includes the advantageous steps of final curing of the mat off of the main molding apparatus, thus achieving efficiencies in use.03-25-1991Resource Management and Use
Greenhouse Illumination SystemAbandoned5,095,414 Tinus, Ricard
greenhouse, illumination, light, frequency, oscillating mirrorAn improved single light fixture for use in intermittently illuminating plants in a greenhouse. A bulb of a particular selected light output frequency is selected, and the fixture comprises an oscillating parabolic mirror which sweeps the light from the bulb across all of the plants in the greenhouse.06-07-1991Resource Management and Use
Porphyrins and Uses ThereofAbandoned5,077,394 Dolphin, David
Nakano, Taku
Kirk, Thomas
Wijesekera, Tilak
Farrell, Roberta
Maione, Theodore
porphyrin, lignin, catalyst, metalDisclosed are tetraphenyl porphyrins which are beta-substituted by fluoro or chloro and/or bear electronegative substituents on the phenyl including one or two water solubilizing substituents. The new porphorins are particularly suitable as catalysts in a variety of oxidative reactions and methods.04-17-1987Resource Management and Use
Biomechanical Pulping with C. subvermisporaAbandoned5,055,159 Blanchette, Robert
Leatham, Gary
Attridge, Michael
Akhtar, Mashood
Myers, Gary
inoculum, fungus, pulping, Ceriporiopsis subvermisporaA method of using biological processes as a pretreatment step in combined biological and mechanical paper pulping process is described. The process uses a species of fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, which has not previously been used for this purpose. It has been found that even with a non-optimized system, and with the stationary holding of the wood chips during fungal incubation, that significant savings in energy usage in the pulping process can be achieved compared to conventional mechanical pulping while simultaneously achieving increased strength characteristics in the paper.05-16-1990Resource Management and Use
Delignification of Lignocellulosic Materials with Monoperoxysulfuric AcidAbandoned5,004,523Springer, Edward
Minor, James
delignification, lignin, lignocellulose, monoperoxysulfuric acid, pulp, cellulose, wood treatment A method for the delignification of lignocellulosic materials with acidic aqueous solutions of monoperoxysulfuric acid for the production of cellulosic pulps for use in papermaking and regenerated cellulose products and for use as animal feeds and other products where removal of lignin is required.03-30-1989Resource Management and Use
Method and Apparatus for Testing Materials Using Strain and Moisture SorptionAbandoned4,934,181 Gunderson, Dennis
pressure, humidity, strain, strain-sorption effect, paperThe invention discloses test methods and apparatus for evaluating the mechano-strain response of various materials, particularly paper and related materials. The moisture sorbed by a specimen is evaluated continuously by observing the change in moisture content of the air in a closed volume surrounding the specimen. The relative humidity of the closed air volume is maintained constant (despite changes in the mass of water vapor in the air) by adjusting the physical volume, and thus the total pressure, of the contained air mass. In a second form, the pressure is adjusted directly. Moisture sorbed by the specimen is calculated from the rise in internal pressure of the closed air mass needed to hold relative humidity constant.03-30-1989Resource Management and Use
Apparatus for Forming Uniform Density Structural FiberboardAbandoned4,753,713 Gunderson, Dennis
fiberboard, structural, porous, manarel, laminate, densityA sculptured structural fiberboard product is formed using a mold that includes porous forming areas which, in one embodiment, are porous forming mandrels movably mounted on the mold, and liquid impervious thimbles which removably cover the porous areas. A fiber network is formed as water is drained off through the porous areas and the thimbles are moved to gradually unveil the porous areas during the mat formation. When mandrels are used, the mandrels are withdrawn in cooperation with a pressing force applied to the mat to consolidate and dry the web. The porous areas can also act as heat and mass transfer means during consolidation and drying. An alternative embodiment permits formation of laminated products and another alternative embodiment permits close control over the product density during consolidation and drying.08-12-1986Resource Management and Use
Douglas-Fir Tree "Torquis" VarietyAbandonedPP07,553 Wells, Stephen
Douglas fir, torquis, asexual reproduction, distorted, Pseudotsuga menziesiiA new and distinct variety of Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii, variety "Torquis", an intervarietal hybrid of coastal variety (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) and inland variety (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca), having generally upright growth with a curving, twisting, non-directional, at times corkscrew-like pattern to stem and branches, and smaller than average size, while retaining the foliage color and foliage character of a normal Douglas-fir, was discovered in a Douglas-fir test planting on a site near Grangeville, Id., and was asexually reproduced by rooting and grafting.04-20-1989Resource Management and Use
Self-Feeding Wood ChunkerAbandoned4,972,889 Arola, Rodger
Marks, Jorgen
self-feeding, wood chunker, rotating, bladeThe invention relates to a self-feeding wood chunker having cutting instruments (1, 2) rotating in opposite directions but with the same speed, which have, on surfaces facing one another, at least one cutting blade (31, 32 and 41, 42), the blades being curved in the direction of rotation such that the leading part (3a, 4a) thereof is nearer to the periphery of the respective cutting instrument and that the trailing part (3a, 4a) thereof is nearer to the axis of rotation (1a, 2a) of the respective cutting instrument. According to the invention, the cutting instruments (1, 2) are arranged with the axes of rotation (1a, 1b) displaced a definite distance (B) from one another.03-25-1988Resource Management and Use
Xylose-Fermenting Yeast MutantsAbandoned5,126,266 Jeffries, Thomas
Livingston, Philip
yeast, xylose, ethanol, fermentation, Pichia stipitus A growth medium is provided for mutant mixtures of Pichia stipitis or Candida shehatae that permits the growth of mutants which are the best xylose-to-ethanol fermenters in the mixture while inhibiting the growth of inefficient fermenters. The medium comprises a mixture of two compounds, the first compound selected from the group consisting of L-xylose, L-arabinose, D-arabinose, glycerol, erythritol, erythrose, 5- and 6-carbon polyols such as xylitol, L-arabinitol, D-arabinitol and mannitol, and wherein the second compound is ammonium tartarate or an inorganic nitrogen source compound such as ammonium chloride or ammonium sulfate.05-02-1988Resource Management and Use
Device for Regulating Luminous Flux Battery Powered HeadlampAbandoned4,949,014 Gasvoda, David
output, incandescent, headlamp, fire fightingA low cost, highly efficient, lightweight device for regulating the luminous flux output of an incandescent headlamp as its battery supply voltage changes. The device maintains nearly constant output and allows nearly all of the energy capacity of the battery to be utilized. The device makes practical the use of low cost, readily available batteries to power wild land firefighter's headlamps. The output of an unregulated headlamp diminishes rapidly as the batteries discharge.02-01-1989Resource Management and Use
Methods of High Frequency Tissue Regeneration, Regeneration of Herbicide-Tolerant Populus Plants Therewith, and the Herbicide-Tolerant Plants Made TherebyAbandoned5,354,943 Michler, Charles H.
Haissig, Bruce
tissue regeneration, herbicide-tolerant, embryogeneisi, PopulusMethods of in vitro culturing of tree tissue are disclosed in which high frequency tissue regeneration is achieved thereby increasing the likelihood of regenerating somaclonal variants having desirable traits. These methods include: culturing with a ratio of naphthaleneacetic acid and benzyladenine, or of benzyladenine and zeatin, in a tissue regeneration medium, the ratio being selected to induce a high frequency of tissue regeneration; culturing on a tissue regeneration medium having a high auxin concentration with a relatively low cytokinin concentration for a short period of time, e.g. up to ten days, to regenerate a high number of morphogenic callus cells; and, regenerating somatic embyros using a medium comprising 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, benzyladenine, sucrose and glutamine, for high frequency regeneration of emboyogenic calli which are then developed into somatic embryos. These high frequency tissue regeneration methods are used to develop plants having tolerance to toxic chemicals by combining the methods with in vitro exposure to toxic chemical thereby to challenge somaclonal variants with the toxic chemical to test for and recover tolerant variants.05-04-1988Resource Management and Use
Radio Controlled Downhill Skyline Logging Carriage and SystemAbandoned4,735,327 Biller, Cleaveland
Johnson, David
skyline, logging, telescoping beam, radioA skyline logging system which uses an improved carriage which can traverse intermediate supports, which can lift both ends of a load of logs, which has a telescoping center beam to accommodate different lengths of logs, which carries an on-board engine so that it is self contained as to power to haul logs up to the carriage, and which is radio controlled so that a man on the ground can perform all of the logging operations.05-30-1986Resource Management and Use
Mechanism for Storing, Singulating and Planting Woody CuttingsAbandoned4,732,094 Kangas, Roy
Matson, Edsel
planter, singulating unit, picker/placer unit, woody cutting, synchronization A stick planting apparatus (10) includes a storage and singulating unit (18) and a picker/placer unit (22). Sticks (S) having at least one viable bud thereon are stored in the storage unit and are automatically singulated in that unit. Operation of the picker/placer unit is synchronized with movement of a vehicle (12) towing the units and each singulated stick is automatically removed from the storage unit and planted as the towing vehicle moves.06-25-1986Resource Management and Use
Method and Apparatus for Nondestructively Determining the Density of a Plurality of Contiguous Segments of a Nonhomogeneous SpecimenAbandoned4,747,308 Winandy, Jerrold
McDonald, Kent
Hankel, Steven
density, nondestructive, support, downward forceMethod and apparatus for nondestructively estimating density of contiguous segments along the length of a straight, elongated specimen which is uniform in cross-section and heterogeneous in density throughout its length comprising maintaining the specimen in a horizontal position by supporting it at two points near opposite ends of the specimen; measuring the downward force exerted by the specimen at one of the points while periodically moving the other support along the length of the specimen. The measurements are applied to a static equilibrium equation together with external dimensions to determine segment densities.03-13-1987Resource Management and Use
PorphyrinsAbandoned4,892,941 Dolphin, David
Nakano, Taku
Kirk, Thomas
Wijesekera, Tilak
Farrell, Roberta
Maione, Theodore
tetraphenyl, porphyrin, beta-substituted, catalyst, oxidative Disclosed are tetraphenyl porphyrins which are beta-substituted by fluoro or chloro and/or bear electronegative substituents on the phenyl including one or two water solubilizing substituents. The new porphorins are particularly suitable as catalysts in a variety of oxidative reactions and methods.04-17-1987Resource Management and Use
Multiple Bandmill for Making a Plurality of Sawlines in the Same Longitudinal Plane At One TimeAbandoned4,864,905 Danielson, Jeanne
Lewis, David
multiple, bandmill, saw, log, longitudinal, bandsaw A multiple bandmill (10) for sawing a log (L) moving past that multiple bandmill. This multiple bandmill includes two pairs of bandmills (20, 22 and 24, 26) located at a common longitudinal position with respect to a log being cut. The bandmills comprising the multiple bandmill are slanted with respect to vertical in the longitudinal direction. The bandsaw blades (50, 52 and 54, 56) of each pair of bandmills within the multiple bandmill cross each other in a X-pattern in the log cutting region (30). One bandmill (20, 26) of each pair is located within the area defined by the other bandmill (22, 24). All four sawlines (12, 14, 16, 18) are made at the same time at a single longitudinal location on the log.01-17-1989Resource Management and Use
Acetylation of Lignocellulosic MaterialsAbandoned4,804,384 Rowell, Roger
Simonson, Rune
Tillman, Anne-Marie
acetylation, lignocellulosic, dimensional stability, acetic acidReaction of lignocellulosic material with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride in the absence of any cosolvent is disclosed. The process improves dimensional stability and resistance to biological attack of the lignocellulosic material. Lignocellulosic material is treated by exposure to liquid acetic anhydride for at least a short period of time, after which it is then heated to acetylate the material. The excess anhydride and byproduct acetic acid can be removed by vacuum.08-28-1985Resource Management and Use
Method for Producing Salts of Monoperoxysulfuric Acid and Simultaneously Bleaching PulpAbandoned4,756,800 Springer, Edward
McSweeny, James
salt, monoperoxysulfuric acid, catalyst, pulp, cupric, sulfur, bleachA method of producing salts of monoperoxysulfuric acid comprising reacting together, in the presence of a catalyst consisting of cupric ions in a concentration of at least 0.01 part per milion, (a) a solution of aerated water having a pH of from about 8 to about 14, and (b) a sulfur-containing reactant, wherein said reactant comprises sulfur dioxide or a sulfite. If a pulp is added to the reaction mixture and the cupric ion concentration is increased, the monoperoxysulfuric acid salts that are genrated in situ in the reaction mixture will simultaneously bleach the pulp.09-03-1986Resource Management and Use
Portable Water BagAbandoned5,230,566 Jackson, George
Putnam, Stuart jr.
Bag, flexible outer shell, flexible inner liner, spout, reusable, liquids, potable water A bag for containing liquids comprising a flexible outer shell and a flexible inner liner. The outer shell has attachment access points and transport straps attached to it. The liner consists of a flexible material with at least one spout which extends through corresponding access points in the outer shell. A flap in the outer shell provides for easy insertion and removal of the liner.07-06-1992Resource Management and Use
Metal Compounds to Eliminate Nonproductive Enzyme Adsorption and Enhance Enzymatic Saccharification of LignocelluloseIssued8,815,561 Liu, Hao
Zhu, JunYong
saccharification, lignocellulose, biofuel, metal compounds, lignin removalMethods and composition for biofuel processing are provided. For example, in certain aspects methods for using metal compounds to enhance cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis are described. Furthermore, the invention provides integrated processes with fewer lignin removal steps to improve efficiency.08-23-2010Resource Management and Use
Fungal Degradation and Bioremediation System for CCA-Treated WoodAbandoned6,495,134 Illman, Barbara
Yang, Vina
Ferge, Leslie
wood, degradation, bioremediation, chromated copperarsenate (CCA), fungal inoculum, Meruliporia incrassata, Antrodia radiculosaA method for degrading and/or bioremediating waste wood containing chromated copper arsenate (CCA) using a fungal inoculurn is disclosed. The fungal inoculum comprises of at least one CCA-tolerant fungi, a lignocellulosic substrate and a nutrient supplement. The fungal inoculum is applied to the waste wood and maintained in an aerated and hydrated environment having temperature conditions sufficient to allow the inoculum to grow and metabolize the CCA. The inoculum and the waste wood are combined until an end product is achieved that is at least partially remediated or of a reduced volume.03-31-2000Resource Management and Use
Xylose-Fermenting Recombinant Yeast StrainsIssued7,285,403 Jeffries, Thomas
Ni, Haiying
Laplaza, Jose
recombinant yeast, xylose-fermenting, ethanol, yeast, Pichia stiptisDisclosed are xylose-fermenting recombinant yeast strains expressing xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase, and xylulokinase and having reduced expression of PHO13 or a PHO13 ortholog, as well as methods of fermenting xylose to obtain ethanol using the recombinant yeast strains.04-06-2005Resource Management and Use
Xylose-Fermenting Recombinant Yeast StrainsIssued7,226,735 Jeffries, Thomas
Jin, Yong-Su
recombinant, yeast, xylose-fermenting, ethanol, Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL-Y-30603, NRRL-Y30602Disclosed are xylose-fermenting recombinant yeast strains comprising heterologous PsXYL1, Ps XYL2, and PsXYL3, as well as methods of fermenting xylose to obtain ethanol using the recombinant yeast strain.01-21-2003Resource Management and Use
Concentric Finger Jointed TimberAbandoned6,537,625 Flach, Dwight
Hernandez, Roland
joint, finger joint, timber, concentric, spiral, roundA finger joint for connecting first and second wooden segments includes intermeshing fingers that are concentrically disposed about the center of the end face of the two wooden segments. The fingers may either be independent round protrusions forming recesses therebetween operable to receive the fingers of a corresponding wooden segment to be joined, or may alternatively comprise a spiral shaped protrusion defining a corresponding recess sized to receive the spiral shaped protrusion of the corresponding wooden segment to be joined.08-01-2000Resource Management and Use
Joint for Connecting Wood MembersAbandoned6,551,007 Lichtenberg, Gary
Erickson, John
Ross, Robert
Flach, Dwight
connection, joint, wood, thumb joint, tenonA self-centering and self-aligning joint is presented for bonding a first and second wood segment, wherein the joint includes a single tenon extending from the end face of the first segment, and a void disposed within the end face of the second segment. And adhesive is applied to the outer surface of the tenon, or to the inner surface of the void to join the two segments.08-01-2000Resource Management and Use
Wood and Plastic Composite Material and Methods for Making SameAbandoned6,586,504 Archuletta, Phil
Muehl, James
wood, plastic, composite, pressA method of preparing wood and plastic to produce a composite material.04-26-2000Resource Management and Use
Single Operator Variable Size Hose WinderAbandoned6,622,957 Fleming, Joseph
hose winder, hose, fire fightingThe present inventive subject matter relates to a hose winder for coiling hose, particularly firefighting hose, comprising a fixed back plate with a rotating hub containing a plurality of tines and an inner plate having a plurality of holes through which the tines protrude. The hose winder produces consistently circular coiled hose and the fire hose can be pushed away from the back plate by the inner plate, via foot pedal, moving the fire hose away from the back plate for easy removal of the fire hose by a single operator.03-22-2002Resource Management and Use
Method for Making Wood and Plastic Composite MaterialAbandoned6,632,387 Archuletta, Phil
Muehl, James
wood, plastic, compositeA method of preparing wood and plastic to produce a composite material.04-26-2000Resource Management and Use
Fungal Degradation and Bioremediation System for Creosote-Treated WoodAbandoned6,664,102 Illman, Barbara
Yang, Vina
Ferge, Leslie
degrade, bioremediation, creosote, wood, fungal inoculum, Meruliporia incrassataA method for degrading and/or bioremediating waste wood containing creosote using a fungal inoculum is disclosed. The fungal inoculum comprises of at least one creosote-tolerant fungi, a lignocellulosic substrate and a nutrient supplement. The fungal inoculum is applied to the waste wood and maintained in an aerated and hydrated environment having temperature conditions sufficient to allow the inoculum to grow and metabolize the creosote. The inoculum and the waste wood are combined until an end product is achieved that is at least partially remediated or of a reduced volume.03-31-2000Resource Management and Use
Naphthalenic Compounds as Termite Bait ToxicantsIssued6,691,453 Guadalupe Rojas, Maria
Morales-Ramos, Juan
Green, Frederick III
termite, bait, attractant, N-hydroxynaphthalimide (NHA)Termite foods mixed together in a matrix suitable to be used as baits and attractants for termites are provided. They comprise cellulose, naphthalenic compounds, water and potentially other termite-preferred nutrients. Methods of monitoring the presence of termites using such matrices and methods of controlling termites using such matrices to deliver termite toxins are also provided.04-30-2002Resource Management and Use
Automated Carbon Efflux SystemAbandoned6,692,970 Butnor, John
Maier, Christopher
Johnsen, Kurt
respiration, carbon, gas, efflux, substrateA method and apparatus are provided for measuring the gas efflux from a substrate. In particular, one or more measuring chambers receive a gas enriched air from the substrate. A respiration system sends reference air having a known gas concentration to the measuring chamber. The reference air mixes with the gas enriched air to form a mixed air, which is returned to the respiration system. The respiration system then measures the gas efflux of the substrate over the given amount of time.01-05-2001Resource Management and Use
Accessible Hand PumpAbandoned6,694,862 Beckley, Robert
Harding, Charles
Kuhn, Tyler
water, pump, hand operated, disabilities, ADAA hand-operated pump, readily accessible and useable by people with disabilities, complies with the specifications set forth in the American Disabilities Act. The reciprocating pump provides for counterbalance-assisted rotary motion input by the user, is simple in design, inexpensive to produce, operates reliably in the field, and requires very little maintenance. The pump is suitable for use in remote areas, such as on ranches, farms and in the National Forest System campgrounds and recreational areas.07-03-2002Outdoor Recreation
Fungal Degradation and Bioremediation System for Pentachlorophenol-Treated WoodAbandoned6,727,087 Illman, Barbara
Yang, Vina
Ferge, Leslie
degradation, bioremediation, fungal inoculum, pentachlorophenal (PCP) wood, Merupiporia incrassate, Antrodia radiculosaA method for degrading and/or bioremediating waste wood containing pentachlorephenol (penta) using a fungal inoculum is disclosed. The fungal inoculum comprises of at least one penta-tolerant fungi, a lignocellulosic substrate and a nutrient supplement. The fungal inoculum is applied to the waste wood and maintained in an aerated and hydrated environment having temperature conditions sufficient to allow the inoculum to grow and metabolize the pentachlorophenol. The inoculum and the waste wood are combined until an end product is achieved that is at least partially remediated or of a reduced volume.03-31-2000Resource Management and Use
Wildland Fire and Fuels
Methods of Making Composites Containing Cellulosic Pulp FibersIssued6,730,249 Sears, Karl
Jacobson, Rodney
Caulfield, Daniel
Underwood, John
fibers, cellulosic pulp, composites, thermoplastic, alpha cellulose purityReinforced composites containing cellulosic pulp fibers dispersed in a matrix, wherein the matrix comprises a thermoplastic polymeric material melting above 180° C. and the cellulosic pulp fibers have an alpha-cellulose purity greater than 80% by weight. Methods of making and using the reinforced composites.10-09-1998Resource Management and Use
Composites Comprising Plant Material from Parthenium SPP. and PlasticAbandoned6,787,590 Nakayama, Francis
Youngquist, John
Chow, Poo
Parthenium, plastic, plant material, composites, guayule, microbial resistanceThis invention relates to novel composites comprising plastic and plant material derived from members of Parthenium spp. and, in particular, Parthenium argentatum (also known as guayule), Parthenium tomentosum or Parthenium incanum. The invention is also directed to composites that possess insect, fungal, and microbial resistance. Products made from composites of the instant invention are useful to make numerous items, particularly those used for construction such as lumber, plywood, particleboard, fiberboard, poles, railroad crossties, or the like.05-12-2000Resource Management and Use
Method for Sensing Evaporation of a LiquidAbandoned6,789,417 Luce, Charles
magnetostrictive, precipitation gage, evaporation, catch tubeA magnetostrictive precipitation gage includes a catch tube having an upper opening configured to receive precipitation therein. A vertical magnetostrictive rod and corresponding magnetic float linearly displaceable thereon are used to determine the fluid level within the catch tube. More particularly, as the fluid level fluctuates in the catch tube, so will the vertical position of the float, which interacts magnetically with the magnetostrictive rod. Accordingly, the vertical position of the float may be detected to determine the fluid level within the catch tube, and calculations regarding precipitation may be performed.08-10-2000Invasive Species
Resource Management and Use
Water, Air, and Soil
Wildland Fire and Fuels
Wildlife and Fish
Radiant and Convective Heat Resistant Materials and Emergency Fire Shelter Made TherefromAbandoned6,881,506 Anderson, Leslie Leah
Davies, Mary Ann
Petrilli, Anthony Clement
Ackerman, Mark
heat resistant, fire shelter, emergency, foil, fiberglass, silica clothThe invention is a new heat and fire resistant material and an improved wildland fire shelter and kit. The material is made of a woven silica-based cloth layered in several possible combinations with foil and fiberglass cloth layers. The layers can be arranged in a variety of sequences to minimize the thermal radiation to the inside of the material or shelter. However, a foil layer must always be the outermost layer to provide protection from radiant heat and a layer of foil must be present between the interior of the shelter or material and any layer of adhesive to limit accumulation of gases inside the shelter if the adhesive or other substance should break down when exposed to heat. The silica cloth, aluminum foil, and fiberglass cloth may be laminated or sewn together. The shape of the fire shelter is a half cylinder with 1/4 sphere at each end. The shelter is contained in an easy-open polyvinyl bag which provides for quick removal and deployment of the fire shelter.11-01-2002Resource Management and Use
Compositions and Methods for Detecting a Sequence Mutation in the Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Associated with Altered Lignification in Loblolly PineAbandoned6,921,643 Gill, Geoffrey
Brown, Garth
Neale, David
Pinus taeda loblolly pine, mutation, gene, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), Fluorescence Polarization detectionLoblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is the most important commercial tree species in the USA harvested for pulp and solid wood products. Increasing the efficiency of chemical pulping may be achieved through the manipulation of genes involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. A null allele of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) has been discovered in the loblolly pine clone 7-56 which displays altered lignin composition. During identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the cad gene, a two-base pair adenosine insertion located in exon five and unique to clone 7-56 was discovered. The sequence mutation causes a frame-shift predicted to result in premature termination of the protein. For routine detection of the mutation, a diagnostic assay was developed utilising Template-directed Dye-terminator Incorporation and Fluorescence Polarization detection (FP-TDI).02-05-2003Resource Management and Use
Fungal Degradation and Bioremediation System for CCA-Treated WoodAbandoned6,972,169 B2Illman, Barbara L.
Yang, Vina W.
Ferge, Leslie A.
Meruliporia incrassta, Antrodia radiculosa degradation, chromated copper arsenate (CCA), bioremediation, wood, fungal inoculumA method for degrading and/or bioremediating waste wood containing chromated copper arsenate (CCA) using a fungal inoculum is disclosed. The fungal inoculum comprises of at least one CCA-tolerant fungi, a lignocellulosic substrate and a nutrient supplement. The fungal inoculum is applied to the waste wood and maintained in an aerated and hydrated environment having temperature conditions sufficient to allow the inoculum to grow and metabolize the CCA. The inoculum and the waste wood are combined until an end product that is at least partially remediated or of a reduced volume.03-31-2000Resource Management and Use
Wildland Fire and Fuels
Subsoiling Excavator BucketAbandoned7,059,072 B2Archuleta, Jr., James G.
Karr, Michael W.
coulter blade, excavator, shanks, bucket, reforestation, subsoiler An excavator bucket adapted to receive subsoiler shanks and an optional coulter blade enables multiple treatment of compacted soil. In a preferred embodiment, the shanks depend downward below the bucket and curve forward toward the bottom of the bucket. The shanks allow a single implement to be used for both excavating and subsoiling, and also for contouring sloping terrain. One application for such an implement is for decommissioning forest roads without the need for multiple pieces of heavy equipment or for multiple entries into the treatment area.02-20-2003Resource Management and Use
Radiant and Convective Heat Resistant MaterialAbandoned7,084,083 B2Anderson, Leslie Leah
Davies, Mary Ann
Petrilli, Anthony Clement
Ackerman, Mark Y.
forest fires, heat resistant, fire resistant, silica, foil, cloth, fiberglassThe invention is a new heat and fire resistant material. The material is made of a woven silica-based cloth layered in several possible combinations with foil and fiberglass cloth layers. The layers can be arranged in a variety of sequences to minimize the thermal radiation to the inside of the material, but a foil layer must always be the outermost layer to provide protection from radiant heat.11-01-2002Resource Management and Use
Subsoiling Grapple RakeAbandoned7,086,184 B2Archuleta, Jr., James G.
Karr, Michael W.
reforestation, grapple rake, subsoiler, shank, soil compaction, coulter bladeA grapple rake adapted for receiving subsoiler shanks is useful for multiple post-timber harvest management activities. A pair of downwardly-depending, forward-oriented subsoiling shanks is mounted on the underside of the rake, allowing the implement to accomplish the tasks of (1) grapple piling to deal with post-timber harvest fuels reduction and (2) subsoiling to improve soil productivity by reducing soil compaction. The implement is optionally equipped with a coulter blade. This invention will be useful for decommissioning forest roads, skid trails, landings, and harvest units with new and/or legacy compaction without the need for multiple pieces of heavy equipment or for multiple entries into the treatment area.02-20-2003Resource Management and Use
Combination Foliage Compaction and Treatment Method and ApparatusAbandoned7,121,040 B2Wiese, Adam, H.
Netzer, Daniel A.
Riemenschneider, Don
foliage, compaction, roller, liquid applicator Method and apparatus for applying liquids to foliage with a roller and adjustable spray nozzle apparatus. A large heavy roller is pulled or pushed across a field of plants, thereby forcing the plants very close to the ground. A height adjustable applicator nozzle directly following the roller can be adjusted very close to the compacted plants. The combination of an adjustable roller and adjustable applicator nozzles allows the fluid to be released very near the plants, thereby increasing the amount of fluid transferred to the plants' surface and lowering the amount of fluid sprayed into the atmosphere. This reduces the amount of fluid required to treat a given area. The result of the invention is a savings in the cost of fluids, improved effectiveness of the treatment and an improved environmental impact where the selected fluid has a negative environmental impact.07-08-2002Resource Management and Use
Emergency Fire Shelter Storage SystemAbandoned7,128,207 B2Anderson, Leslie Leah
Davies, Mary Ann
Petrilli, Anthony Clement
Ackerman, Mark Y.
fire shelter, storage, pouch, handleThe present invention relates to a fire shelter storage system which comprises an emergency fire shelter constructed of a heat and fire resistant material, an outer protective pouch and a handle, whereby the emergency fire shelter is removed from the pouch by applying a force to the handle to release the releasable fastener and extract the fire shelter unit from the pouch.11-01-2002Resource Management and Use
Process for Detoxification of CCA-Treated WoodAbandoned7,160,526 B2Lin, Lianzhen
Hse, Chung-Yun
Shupe, Todd Finley
detoxification, wood, copper chrome arsenic (CCA)A chemical process for detoxifying spent CCA (copper, chrome, arsenic)--treated wood, from which CCA and detoxified wood are recovered for recycling comprising the steps of (a) treating CCA-treated wood in the presence of a liquefying reagent such as an organic solvent at 100 250.degree. C. with or without ferrous ions to form liquefied CCA-treated wood (b) adding water or an aqueous solution of an organic solvent to the liquefied CCA-treated wood with stirring to obtain an aqueous solution of liquefied CCA-treated wood (c) adding complexing or precipitating agents, such as phosphoric acid or calcium hydroxide to the aqueous solution of step (b) thereby precipitating insoluble heavy metal complexes or precipitates and forming a solution of detoxified CCA-treated wood (d) separating said heavy metal complexes or precipitates from the solution of detoxified liquefied CCA-treated wood and (e) isolating chromated copper arsenate from said heavy metal complex or precipitate. Further, the solvent may be removed from the solution of detoxified CCA-treated wood of step (d) to obtain concentrated liquefied detoxified CCA-treated wood. This concentrated material may be used as a phenolic or polyurethane intermediate. Additionally, by adding a concentrated inorganic acid, such as sulfuric acid, nitric acid or phosphoric acid, to the complex or precipitated solids of step (d), chromated copper arsenate can be recovered for use in manufacturing additional CCA-treated wood.05-09-2003Resource Management and Use
Method for Producing PulpIssued7,306,698Akhtar, Masood
Swaney, Ross E.
Horn, Eric G.
Lentz, Michael J.
Scott, Gary M.
Black, Cory C.
Houtman, Carl J.
Kirk, T.K.
pulp, lignocellulose, oxalic acid, sodium bisulfite The present invention is a method for producing pulp from fibrous lignocellulose material using a treatment step which exposes the material to oxalic acid, or oxalic acid and sodium bisulfite, prior to pulping. The pulping of the resulting product requires less energy input and provides a pulp having enhanced physical properties as compared to untreated materials.03-20-2001Resource Management and Use
Water-Resistant Vegetable Protein Adhesive Dispersion CompositionsIssued7,345,136 B2Wescott, James M.
Frihart, Charles R.
adhesive, dispersion, water resistant, vegetable protein, wood substrates, laminate, composite materials, methylolWater-resistant, protein-based adhesive dispersion compositions and methods for preparing them are provided. The adhesive dispersions are prepared by copolymerizing a denatured vegetable protein, such as soy flour, that has been functionalized with methylol groups with one or more reactive comonomers, and preparing an acidic dispersion of the adhesive. The adhesive dispersions exhibit superior water resistance, and can be used to bond wood substrates, such as panels or laminate, or in the preparation of composite materials.04-06-2004Resource Management and Use
Method and Apparatus for Monitoring Liquid and Solid Contents in a FrothAbandoned7,381,305 B2Zhu, JunYong
Tan, Freya
Gleisner, Roland
liquid, solid, froth, suspension, electrode, fiber particles, conductance, solid particle contentA method and apparatus are presented for determining the quantity of liquid and solid content in a removal stream of a froth created from a suspension that is generated during a froth flotation operation. Specifically, electrodes are immersed in the froth generated from a suspension having a known quantity of fiber particles, and the conductance of the froth is measured to establish a relationship between the measured conductance and the quantity of fiber particles. The electrodes are then submerged in a froth generated from a suspension having an unknown quantity of fiber particles, and the froth conductance is measured. The quantity of fiber particles in the froth can then be determined from the pre-established relationship between conductance and solid particle content.03-25-2005Resource Management and Use
Compositions and Kits for Detecting a Sequence Mutation in Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Associated with Altered Lignification in Loblolly PineAbandoned7,396,921 B2Gill, Geoffrey P.
Brown, Garth R.
Neale, David B.
pine, detection, mutation, kit, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) lignin, fluorescence polarization detection, template-directed, dye-terminatorLoblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is the most important commercial tree species in the USA harvested for pulp and solid wood products. Increasing the efficiency of chemical pulping may be achieved through the manipulation of genes involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. A null allele of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) has been discovered in the loblolly pine clone 7-56 which displays altered lignin composition. During identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the cad gene, a two-base pair adenosine insertion located in exon five and unique to clone 7-56 was discovered. The sequence mutation causes a frame-shift predicted to result in premature termination of the protein. For routine detection of the mutation, a diagnostic assay was developed utilising Template-directed Dye-terminator Incorporation and Fluorescence Polarization detection (FP-TDI).02-05-2003Resource Management and Use
Method and Apparatus for Evaluation of Standing TimberIssued7,418,866 B2Wang, Xiping
Sharplin, Nigel
Carter, Peter
Ross, Robert J.
timber, standing timber, quality, evaluation, probe, longitudinal, compression wave, amplitude-independent pulse discriminationA method and apparatus for measuring the quality of live, standing timber employs deep-set spike probes angled to create a longitudinal compression wave. Alignment tools and isolation of the probes provide an improved signal, automated detection of probe separation and amplitude-independent pulse discrimination process ensure higher reliability and repeatability of the measurements, and wireless operation provides operational efficiencies.01-21-2004Resource Management and Use
Method and System for Measuring Optical Properties of Scattering and Absorbing MaterialsAbandoned7,495,221 B2Vahey, David W.
Zhu, JunYong
Houtman, Carl J.
optical, scattering, absorbing, effective residual ink concentration (ERIC), reflect, transmit, radiation, recycled paper, ink concentration, paper, opacity, ink removalA system and method for determining a level of effective residual ink concentration (ERIC) in a piece of recycled paper. The piece of paper is illuminated with a beam of radiation and an amount of the beam of radiation reflected and transmitted by the piece of paper is measured. The level of ERIC is determined as a function of the reflected and transmitted radiation.05-15-2007Resource Management and Use
Method for Integrated Conversion of Lignocellulosic Material to Sugars or Biofuels and Nano-CelluloseAbandoned8,835,141Zhu, JunYong
Sabo, Ronald
Clemons, Craig
nanocellulose, lignocellulosic, recalcitrant cellulose, hydrolyzed sugars, biofuel, nano-fibrillated cellulose, conversion (bioconversion), fractionation process, biomass, sustainable, single processThe present invention relates to systems, compositions and methods for the conversion of lignocellulosic material to recalcitrant cellulose and hydrolyzed sugars and products produced therefrom (e.g., biofuel, nano-fibrillated cellulose). In particular, the invention provides novel fractionation processes configured to integrate production of hydrolyzed sugars (e.g., for biofuel production) and recalcitrant cellulose (e.g., for nano-fibrillated cellulose production) from lignocellulosic material and methods of using the same (e.g., in the production of biofuel and nano-fibrillated cellulose). The invention is also directed to nanocellulose with morphologies of having a less entangled and slightly branched fibril network, and having the same thermal stability as of that of the initial lignocellulose feedstock.06-09-2011Resource Management and Use
Microsatellite DNA Markers and Uses ThereofAbandoned6,733,965Echt, Craig S.
Nelson, C. Dana
pine, DNA marker, microsatellite, genetics SSRMicrosatellite, simple sequence repeat (SSR), markers have much potential for enhancing genome mapping and genotype identification research in forest genetics and tree breeding, SSR markers were developed by isolating and sequencing 1539 loblolly pine SSR clones for 11 SSR sequences, 566 oligonucleotide PCR primer pairs flanking the SSRs were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to amplify genomic DNA from loblolly pine. The three SSR motifs that yielded the highest proportion of informative markers from sequenced clones were (AC)n, (AAAT)n and (AAAC)n. Eighteen polymorphic tri- and tetranucleotide SSR loci were genotyped in 20 loblolly pine trees using automated fluorescent marker analysis. The average number of alleles per locus observed was 6.4, and the average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.547. Subsets of the 566 primer pairs were evaluated for their ability to amplify DNA from six other pine species, and 54 primer pairs amplified markers that were polymorphic among the species. The present invention also concerns the methods of using the identified SSR loci as genetic markers.01-15-1999Resource Management and Use
Essential Oils Inhibit Mold on WoodAbandoned1,716,429Yang, Vina
Clausen, Carol
surface treatment, wood, inhibit, prevent, control growth, mold fungi, essential oil, geranium Egyptian thyme, dill weed, rosemary, dip, spray, brush, vapor exposure, non-toxicMethods of treating wood lumber to inhibit growth of mold fungi by surface treating the wood lumber with essential oil began geranium Egyptian, thyme, dill weed or rosemary. Various surface treatments include dipping, spraying, brushing and vapor exposure03-15-2006Resource Management and Use
Sulfite Pretreatment for Biorefining BiomassIssued9,090,915Wang, Gaosheng
Pan, Xuejun
Zhu, JunYong
Gleisner, Roland
sulfite pretreatment, biorefining, biofuels, biochemical, biomass, sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL), enzymes, reduce access barriers, enzymatic saccharification, efficient, conversion, optimize solids-loading and size reduction, lignocelluloseThe present invention relates to a method using sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL). More specifically, it relates to sulfite-based chemical process for pretreating biomass in solutions to reduce access barriers of enzymes to the lignocellulose, resulting in efficient conversion through enzymatic saccharification.04-22-2008Resource Management and Use
Protein Having Pesticidal Activity, DNA Encoding the Protein, and Noxious Organism-Controlling Agent that Controls the Insect Pest, Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), Agrilus PlanipennisAbandoned2,747,861Bauer, Leonora S.
John , Libs L.
emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, noxius, organism-controlling, pesticidal, Coleoptera pests, Bacillus thuringiensis, toxic protein Cry8Da, DNA, (microbial) insecticide A noxious organism-controlling agent disclosed herein is effective to pests that have acquired a resistance to conventional Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) agents and has activity on Coleoptera pests and specifically against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairrnaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Also disclosed is a microbe Bacillus thuringiensis serovar galleriae SDS502 strain having an ability of producing a toxic protein (Cry8Da) that can serve as an active ingredient of a noxious organism-controlling agent to control EAB.12-11-2007Resource Management and Use
Methods of Monitoring and Controlling the Walnut Twig Beetle, Pityophthorus JuglandisIssued9,137,990Seybold, Steve
Dallara, Paul L.
Nelson, Lori
Graves, Andrew D.
Hishinuma, Stacy M
Gries, Regine
walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis), monitor, control, semiochemicals, 3-methyl-2-buten-1-01, conophthorin, chalcogran, treat, expose, Geosmithia morbida, infection, thousand canker diseasesDisclosed are methods Which include exposing a beetle of the species Pityophthorus juglandis and/or treating surfaces susceptible to infestation by the species or to infection by Geosmithia morbida with compositions including one or more semiochemicals capable of being produced by Pityophthorus juglandis. The semiochemicals can be 3-methyl-2-buten-1-01, conophthorin or chalcogran. Also disclosed are compositions and systems used in the methods.07-15-2011Resource Management and Use
Device and Method for Measuring the Rheological Properties of a Yield Stress FluidIssued9,116,092Samaniuk, Joseph R.
Klingenberg, Daniel J.
Scott, Charles T
Root, Thatcher W.
yield stress, fluid, rheological properties, measure, sensor, force, fluid flaw, biomass materialA device and a method are provided for measuring the yield stress of a fluid. The device includes a container for receiving the fluid therein and an auger having a shaft extending along an axis and a helical flange extending radially about the shaft. The auger is moveable in the fluid between a first position and a second position. A sensor is operatively connected to the auger. The sensor measures a force on the auger as the auger moves from the first position to the second position. A linkage is interconnected to the sensor. The linkage translates motion to the auger.10-07-2011Resource Management and Use
Cut-Fold Shape Technology for Engineered Molded Fiber BoardsIssued9,740,799Herdt, Julee Ann
Schauermann, Kellen Scott
Hunt, John
cut-fold shape technology, molded, fiberboards, three-dimensional engineered shaped fiber configuration, structural requirements, engineered molded fiber (EMF), structural building panels, structural insulated building panels (SIPs), mold making, structurally enhanced, more efficient, more cost efficient, furnitureA three-dimensional engineered shaped fiber configuration is formed using determined structural requirements for a three-dimensional engineered shaped fiber configuration and ascertained properties of an engineered molded fiber fiberboard material. A first cut on a top surface and a second cut on a bottom surface of the fiberboard material are calculated. These calculations are based, at least in part, on the structural requirements properties of the fiberboard material. The first cut and the second cut each have a depth, a width, and a position. The first cut and the second cut have a spacing between them such that the flat piece of fiberboard material can be folded at a point located in the spacing between the first cut and the second cut to position a first portion of the fiberboard material at a particular angle with respect to a second portion of the fiberboard material.12-03-2010Resource Management and Use
Sustainable Hybrid Organic Aerogels and Methods and Uses ThereofIssued9,550,871Gong, Shaoqin
Javadi, Alireza
Zheng, Qifeng
Cai, Zhiyong
Sabo, Ronald
aerogel, ultra-low densities, highly porous, lightweight, superhydrophobic surface, low swelling ratio, low rate of moisture absorption, aerogel composition, mechanical properties, cellulose nonfibrils/nanocrystals, insulationHighly porous, lightweight, and sustainable hybrid organic aerogels With ultra-low densities and excellent material properties and methods for preparing them are provided, including, e.g., PVA/CNF/GONS, RF/CNF/GONS, and PVA/CNF/MWCNT. The aerogels are modified to have a super hydrophobic surface, thus leading to an extremely low swelling ratio and rate of moisture absorption.11-09-2012Resource Management and Use
Recyclable Organic Solar Cells on Substrates Comprising Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNC)Issued9,203,030Kippelen, Bernard
Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek
Zhou, Yinhua
Moon, Robert
Youngblood, Jeffrey
cellulose nanocryastals (CNC), recyclable, organic solar cells, electrode, photoactive, film, substrate, Lewis basic oligomer/polymer, alternative, flexibility, silicon-based solar cells, renewable, solar cell technologyRecyclable organic solar cells are disclosed herein. Systems and methods are further disclosed for producing; improving performance; and for recycling the solar cells. In certain example embodiments; the recyclable organic solar cells disclosed herein include: a first electrode; a second electrode; a photoactive layer disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode; an interlayer comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer disposed between the photoactive layer and at least a portion of the first electrode or the second electrode; and a substrate d1sposed adjacent to the first electrode or the second electrode. The interlayer reduces the work function associated with the first or second electrode. In certain example embodiments; the substrate comprises cellulose nanocrystals that can be recycled. In certain example embodiments; one or more of the first electrode; the photoactive layer; and the second electrode may be applied by a film transfer lamination method.05-16-2011Resource Management and Use
Metabolically Engineered Yeasts for the Production of Ethanol and Other Products from Xylose and CellobioseAbandoned4,139,559Jeffries, Thomas W
Nelson, Shawn S
Mahan, Sarah D
metabolically engineered, yeast, ethanol production, xylose, cellobiose, high concentration, bioreactor, industrial microbiology, glucose, fermentation, recombinant yeast, efficient, gene, transformation The present invention provides yeast cells that produce high concentrations of ethanol, culture media and bioreactors comprising the yeast cells, and methods for making and using the yeast cells in efficiently producing ethanol.03-31-2010Resource Management and Use
System for and Method of Performing Evaluation Techniques on a Log or Round TimberAbandoned7,043,990Wang, Xiping
Ross, Robert
Mattson, James A
Erickson, John
Forsman, John W
Geske, Earl A
Wehr, Michael A
log, timber, modulus of elasticity (MOE), module, output, processor, signal, nondestructive evaluation, stiffness, measureA system for and method of evaluating a log. The system includes an analysis module having at least one input terminal connectable to the at least one input device. The at least one input terminal is operable to receive at least on signal representing at least one measured property of the log and at least one determined parameter of the log determined in response to an energy being applied to the log. The analysis module further includes a processor coupled to the at least one input terminal. The processor determines a predictive modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the log based at least in part on the at least on measured property and the at least one sensed parameter. The analysis module also includes an output terminal coupled to the processor and connectable to an output device. The output terminal transmits a third signal representing the predictive MOE.01-31-2001Inventory and Monitoring
Method and Apparatus for Forming Three Dimensional Structural Components From Wood FiberAbandoned4,702,870Setterlholm, Vance C
Hunt, John
3D structural material, wood fiber, support, mold inserts, heat drying, flow deposition, hardwood, low quality, solid blocks, inflatable membrane Methods and apparatus for producing three-dimensional structural members having one flat side from wood fibers utilizing flow deposition of the fibers onto a support. The support includes resilient deformable mold inserts. The mold inserts are formed of silicone rubber and may be blocks of the material, or may be a membrane which can be inflated to form the mold inserts. Pressing is done with a force normal to the support, and the mold inserts create response forces at varying directions to thus shape and hold the tree-dimensional finished part. Heat drying also may be used.05-20-1986Resource Management and Use
Defect Detection System for LumberAbandoned5,960,104Conners, Richard W
Kline, David E
Araman, Phillip A
Xiao, Xiangyu
Drayer, Thomas H
defect, detection, lumber, vision system, board, lineal, cant, flitch inspection problems, sensor, 3D shape detection problem, color cameras, laser, x-ray scanning system, analysis, fillers, optimize A machine vision system that can address a number of board, lineal, cant, and flitch inspection problems by incorporating all the sensors needed to address the surface feature detectioa problem, the three-dimensioaal shape detection problem, and the internal feature detection problem. To detect surface features, two color cameras are employed, one for imaging each of the major faces of a board, lineal, cant, or fi tch. To address the thrce-clirneasional shape detection problem, a high speed laser profiling device is employed. An x-ray scanning system is employed to de tect in ternal features. The system is able to process material in a species independent manaer by usiag a histogram-based segmentation procedure for analyzing both the camera imagery and the x-ray imagery; and can detect small defects by removing the effects of large features from the rnstograms once they have been detected. The system also utilizes redundant information from the set of multiple seasors to improve system accuracy. The volume of data that must be analyzed due the use of three sets of sensors is reduced by ordering the way the data is analyzed. The laser profile data is processed first, followed by the x-ray data and the color imagery. Finally, the system reduces the required volume of data by incorporating a crack/check preserving filter. This filter is implemented in special purpose hardware, and filters the color imagery as it is collected.08-16-1996Resource Management and Use
Essential Oils Inhibit Mold on WoodAbandoned8,986,757Yang, Vina
Clausen, Carol
surface treatment, wood, inhibit, prevent, control growth, mold fungi, essential oil, geranium Egyptian, thyme, dill weed, rosemary, dip, spray, brush, vapor exposure, non-toxicMethods of treating wood lumber to inhibit growth of mold fungi by surface treating the wood lumber with an essential oil, diluted or undiluted, being geranium Egyptian, thyme, dill weed or rosemary. Various surface treatments including dipping, spraying, brushing and vapor exposure.03-15-2006Resource Management and Use
Method of Forming a Cellulose Nanocrystalline FilmIssued9,296,131Youngblood, Jeffrey
Moon, Robert
Reising, Alex
cellulose nanocrystaline film, uniaxially-oriented, high content, plant-biomass-based, pH (neutral), shear, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), industry, highly oriented, high-strength composites, manufacturingA method is providing for forming a substantially uniaxially-oriented, high content cellulose nanocrystals film. The method includes providing a plant-biomass-bsed suspension of cellulose nanocrystals and altering the pH of the cellulose nanocrystals to a substantially neutral pH. The suspension is sheared at a shearing rate. The method further includes orienting the cellulose nanocrystals in a substantially axial direction and removing water from the sheared cellulose nanocrystals suspension. As a result, a substantially uniaxially-oriented cellulose nanocrystals film is formed.10-13-2010Resource Management and Use
Sugar Transport Sequences, Yeast trains Having Improved Sugar Update, and Methods of UseIssued8,916,367Jeffries, Thomas W.
Bae, JuYun
Lin, Bernice
VanVleet, Jennifer
Pichia stipitis, xylose, glucose, ethanol, xylitol, proteins, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yeastDisclosed are nucleic acid constructs comprising coding sequences operably linked to a promoter not natively associated with the coding sequence. the coding sequences encode Pichia stipitis proteins that allow recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the protein to grow on xylose, and allow or increase uptake of xylose by Pichia striritis or Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the coding sequences. Expression of the coding sequences enhances uptake of xylose and/or glucose, allowing increased ethanol or xylitol production.06-13-2008Resource Management and Use
Recursive Hexapod System and Method for Multiaxial Mechanical TestingIssued8,978,480Michopoulos, John
Hermanson, John
Illopoulos, Athanasios
recursive hexapod, mechanical testing, hydraulic, multiaxial, piston, magneto-resistive, transducerA recursive hexapod testing machine for mechanical testing of deformable material specimens under six degrees of freedom multiaxial loading. The machine includes a fixed base, a movable base connected to the fixed base at by a hexapod arrangement of six linearly extendable actuator linkages, with an end of each linkages attached to the movable base and the other end of the linkage attached to the fixed base. Each actuator linkage includes a hydraulic cylinder and piston, a digitally-controlled electro-hydraulic servo-valve for actuating the hydraulic cylinder in response to a digital command string, a load cell in line between the piston and the universal joint attached to the movable base, a linear variable displacement transducer for measuring extension of the piston, and a magneto-resistive position transducer for measuring a position of the piston. The servo-valves extend each hydraulic cylinder a predetermined amount to effect a desired motion of the material specimen.08-02-2011Resource Management and Use
Engineered Molded Fiberboard Panels and Methods of Making and Using the SameIssued8,936,699Noble, Robert
Hunt, John
Newburn, Timothy
Gu, Hongmei
fiberboard panel, corrugated, molded, cellulose fiber, wet mat, pressA fiberboard panel is formed from at least one corrugated sheet of molded cellulose fiber material having alternating ribs and grooves. The corrugated sheet or panel is formed by a wet processing method including successive cold and hot press steps in which a wet mat is pressed between an opposing perforated platen and non-perforated, elastomeric material platen of cross-sectional shape substantially matching the desired panel shape and dimensions.03-28-2008Invasive Species
Resource Management and Use
Fiber Loading Improvements in PapermakingAbandoned8,808,503Klungness, John
paper making, calcium hydroxide, pulp, fiber, slurry, calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate precipitateA method of making paper includes mixing calcium hydroxide into a water and pulp fiber slurry. The method also includes reacting the calcium hydroxide and pulp fiber slurry under a carbon dioxide pressure. Further, the method includes causing calcium carbonate precipitate to form in response to the reacting.02-02-2009Resource Management and Use
Annual Brome Control Using a Native Fungal Seed PathogenIssued9,622,487Meyer, Susan
Clement, Suzette
Beckstead, Julie
seed, pathogen, cheatgrass, biocontrol, Pyrenophora semniperda Formulations having a selective, mycoherbicide activity for killing ungerminated seeds of invasive grass species are provided. An agricultural, mycoherbicide formulation is taught for killing ungerminated seeds of invasive grass species. The formulations can comprise, for example, a slow-growing strain of Pyrenophora semniperda>/em>, a fast-growing strain of Pyrenophora semeniperda, or a combination thereof, and an agriculturally acceptable carrier. As such, the teachings include a composition comprising a mixture of a slow-growing strain of Pyrenophora semeniperda and a fast-growing strain of Pyrenophora semeniperda. The mixture of strains can be used to provide a mixture of virulence that is useful for killing carryover seed banks, with regard to both type and level of virulence. 08-03-2011Invasive Species
Resource Management and Use
Wildlife and Fish
Reducing Non-Specific Enzyme Binding to Enhance Lignocellulose ConversionAbandoned9,074,231Zhu, JunYong
lignocellulose conversion, enzyme, lignin, reaction vessel, lignocellulosic feedstock, hardwood, softwood, hemicelluloseA system is provided for reducing non-specific binding of an enzyme to lignin to enhance an enzymatic processing of a lignocellulosic material. The enhancements provide economic and process advantages to any process that converts a lignocellulosic biomass into a product using an enzyme. Systems are provided comprising a reaction vessel; a lignocellulosic feedstock comprising a component selected from the group consisting of a hardwood, a softwood, or a non-wood material; an enzyme component including a cellulose, a hemicellulose, or a combination thereof; and, water. The reaction vessel can contain a combination of the lignocellulosic feedstock, the water, and the enzyme component at a pH ranging from about 5.2 to about 6.2; and the lignocellulosic feedstock can be saccharified in the reaction vessel. Moreover, the systems can include a lignosulfonate, with or without a pH of about 5.2 to about 6.2, to also reduce non-specific binding and enhance enzymatic activity.10-15-2012Resource Management and Use
Binderless Panel Made From Wood Particles and Cellulosic FibersAbandoned3,757,603Lee, Christine
Hunt, John
binderless panel, wood particles, cellulosic fibers, fiberboard, wet process, water, heat, pressure, uniform density coreThe present invention relates to pressed fiberboard articles made using a binderless wet process from a combination of fibers and particles. A mixture of particles (e.g., wood particles) and cellulosic fibers is formed into a panel using only water, heat and pressure. the present invention is further directed to fiberboard articles having uniform density cores or higher density cores.02-03-2012Invasive Species
Resource Management and Use
Method and Apparatus for Monitoring Waterbed Environment Using Temperature MeasurementsIssued9,360,380 Tonina, Daniele
Luce, Charlie
Gariglio, Frank
thermal scour deposition chain, temperature, waterbed, reverbed, scour, probe, sensor, environmentA method and apparatus for monitoring waterbed environment are described. The method may comprise determining a first temperature at a location within the water column of a surface body of water that is representative of the upper thermal boundary condition between surface water and pore water environments, and determining at least a second temperature at the location at a first depth below a waterbed surface. The first and second temperatures are then used to monitor a waterbed environment. Certain embodiments are particularly useful for monitoring spatiotemporal variations of riverbed surface elevations, such as scour and deposition, over a time period. Probe/sensor assemblies are disclosed for practicing the method.05-09-2012Invasive Species
Resource Management and Use
Water, Air, and Soil
Wildland Fire and Fuels
Wildlife and Fish
Sugar Transport Sequences, Yeast Strains Having Improved Sugar Uptake and Methods of UseIssued9,150,869Jeffries, Thomas
Bae, JuYun
Lin, Bernice Chin-Yun
Headman Van Vleet, Jennifer Rebecca
Yeast, Pichia stipites, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ethanol, xylitol, fermentationDisclosed are nucleic acid constructs comprising coding sequences operable linked to a promoter not natively associated with the coding sequence. The coding sequences encode Pichia stipitis proteins that allow recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the protein to grow on xylose, and allow or increase uptake of xylose by Pichia stipitis or Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the coding sequences. Expression of the coding sequences enhances uptake of xylose and/or glucose, allowing increased ethanol or xylitol production.06-13-2013Resource Management and Use
Capillary Photoelectrode Structures for Photoelectrochemical and Photocatalytic CellsIssued9,637,830Wang, Xudong
Li, Zhaodong
Cai, Zhiyong
Yao, Chunhua
capillary, photoelectrolyte, photoelectrochemical, capillary, photocatalytic, nanofiberPhotocatalytic structures having a capillary-force based electrolyte delivery system are provided. Also provided are photoclectrochemical and photocatalytic cells incorporating the structures and methods for using the cells to generate hydrogen and/or oxygen from water. The photocatalytic structures use an electrolyte-transporting strip comprising a porous network of cellulose nanofibers to transport electrolyte from a body of the electrolyte to a porous photoelecyrode or a porous photocatalytic substrate via capillary force.01-28-2014Resource Management and Use
Methods of Pretreating Lignocellulosic Biomass with Reduced Formation of Fermentation InhibitorsIssued9,243,364Zhu, JunYong
Gleisner, Roland
lignocellulose, biomass, fermentation, inhibitors, enzymatic saccharification, ethanol, pretreatmentMethods of pertreating lignocellulosic biomass in preparation for enzymatic saccharification and fermentation are provided.  Also provided are methods of producing ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass via enzymatic saccharifiation and fermentation that utilize the pretreatment method.06-09-2014Resource Management and Use
Glycosyl Hydrolase Xylanases, Compositions and Methods of Use for Efficient Hydrolysis and Processing of XylanIssued10,041,136St. John, Franz
Dietrich, Diane
Crooks, Casey
glycosyl, hydrolase, zylanases, xylan, GH30-8The invention provides a unique subset of GH30 subfamily 8 zylanases (GH30-8) with endo-B-1, 4-xylanase activity, compositions comprising an effective amount of the GH30-8 xylanases, methods of synthesis and methods of use thereof.07-10-2014Resource Management and Use
Methods for Synthesizing Graphene From a Lignin SourceIssued9,540,244Zhang, Jilei
Cai, Zhiyong
Mun, Phil
Graphene, Lignin, Synthesize, carbon nanomaterials, thermal treating, Embodiments of the presently-disclosed subject matter include methods for synthesizing carbon nanomaterials from a lignin and/or source thereof. Exemplary methods comprise a process of thermal treating a lignin and/or source thereof in the presence of a catalyst to synthesize graphene nanosheets.06-05-2013Resource Management and Use
Integrating The Production Of Carboxylated Cellulose Nanofibrils And Cellulose Nanocrystals Using Recyclable Organic AcidsIssued10,006,166Zhu, JunYong
Chen, Liheng
Gleisner, Roland
CNC, CNF, CF, CMF, CSR, cellulosic nanocrystal, cellulosic nanofibril, cellulose fiber, cellulosic solid residue, carboxylated, thermal stability,

Methods for integrating the production of carboxylated CNCs and carboxylated CNFs from cellulose are provided. Carboxylated CNCs, carboxylated cellulosic solid residues (CSRs) in the form of cellulose fibers (CF) and/or cellulose microfibrils (CMFs), and carboxylated CNFs fabricated using the methods are also provided. The methods are based on the acid hydrolysis of a cellulosic material using weak solid organic acids to produce carboxylated CNCs and CNFs with thermal stabilities that are higher than the thermal stabilities of the cellulosic materials from which they are derived.

02-05-2016Resource Management and Use
Method of Forming a Cellulose Nanocrystalline FilmIssued9,969,108Moon, Robert
Youngblood, Jeffrey
Reising, Alex
Cellulose Nanocrystalline Film, CNC10-13-2010Resource Management and Use
Method and Apparatus to Produce Synthesis Gas Via Flash Pyrolysis and Gasification in a Molten LiquidIssued8,529,644Dietenberger, Mark
Anderson, Mark
synthesis gas, flash pyrolysis, gasification, molten liquidDisclosed are a method and correspondig apparatus for converting a biomass reactant into synthesis gas.  The method includes the steps of (1) heating biomass in the first molten liquid bath at a first temperature, wherein the first temperature is at least about 100C., but less than the decomposition temberature of the biomass, wherein gas comprising ater is evaporated and air is pressed from the biomass, thereby yielding dried biomass with minimal air content.  (2) Recapturing the moisture evaporated from the biomass in step 1 for use in the process gas.  (3) Heating the dried biomass in a second molten liquid bath at a second temperature, wherein the second temperature is sufficiently high to cause flash pyrolysis of the dried biomass, thereby yielding product gases, tar, and char.  (4) Inserting recaptured steam into the process gas, which may optionally include external natural gas or hydrogen gas or recycled syngas for mixing and reformig with tar and non-condensable gases. (5) Further reacting thte produdt gases, tar and char with the proces gas within a third molten liquid bath at a third temperature which is eq2ual to or greater than the second temperature within the second molten liquid bath, thereby yielding high quality and relatively clean synthesis gas after a relatively long residence time needed for char gasification.  A portion fo the synthesis gas so formed is combusted to heat the first, second , and third molten liquid baths, unless external natural or hydrogen gas is available for this use.04-24-2007Wildland Fire and Fuels
Triboelectric Nanogenerators Based on Chemically Treated CelluloseIssued10,277,147Cai, Zhiyong
06-09-2016Resource Management and Use
Improving Log Defect Detection Accuracy by Combining Complementary Scanning MethodsAbandoned2,450,974Wang, Xiping
Ross, Robert
Brashaw, Brian
Thomas, Ed
01-27-2017Resource Management and Use
Title Status Number Authors Keywords Abstract Filed Date Program Area