Forest Service research featured in a 15-chapter book (Exotic brome-grasses in arid and semiarid ecosystems of the western US: Causes, consequences, and management implications) examines the environmental impacts, invasiveness, environmental controls, and management alternatives for invasive annual brome-grasses. The first section addresses patterns and impacts of invasion, generating a “35,000 foot view” of where, when, and how invasion by the dominant exotic annual brome-grasses has varied among ecoregions in the Western United States. This analysis reveals that brome-grasses have had very different impacts in different areas. Ecosystem effects are then examined in further detail, focusing mostly on cheatgrass, and providing a basis for why brome-grasses are a concern. The second section of the book explores the broad evolutionary, reproductive, and biogeographic traits and patterns affecting the genetic diversification and colonization of the western U.S. by brome-grasses, particularly cheatgrass. The third section evaluates soil, climate, and plant-community controls on brome-grasses to characterize key aspects of invasibility of sites, plant communities, or regions. The last section explores human and economic dimensions and management options related to both spread and management of brome-grasses. A comprehensive review of management treatments and their effectiveness is then provided with a focus on restoring and maintaining sustainable ecosystems.