Forest Service scientists at the agency’s Northern Research Station identify and breed American elms with tolerance to Dutch elm disease (DED) through a multi-step program that involves: (1) Propagating old American elms that have survived the Dutch elm disease epidemic through grafting and cuttings; (2) Crossing these survivor elm selections with known DED-tolerant American elm selections; (3) Growing the elms generated from the cuttings and crosses; and (4) Inoculating the elms with the DED pathogen to test them for resistance to DED. They are also examining elm metabolites to understand how the trees survive the disease. In addition, the researchers have started studying elm yellows, another important elm disease, with the goal of incorporating elm yellows resistance into the breeding program. During summer 2016, they propagated 13 new survivor elm selections provided by partners at Nature Conservancy and generated progeny from crosses with these elms for future testing; inoculated 37 elm selections in potted tree and plantation tree assays; and sampled foliage of inoculated trees for metabolites. Preliminary results show some inoculated elm selections performing very well compared to DED-susceptible controls, which are showing severe symptoms of decline. The elms that can tolerate DED can be used for urban plantings and for restoration of forests.