Millions of acres of mixed-conifer forest across the western United States have been adversely affected by drought and insect outbreaks. The forests are overloaded with fuels, priming them for unusually severe and extensive wildfires. Public support for forest restoration has grown, but natural resource managers and policymakers are awash in information, with little time to assimilate and interpret the science. To that end, Forest Service and university scientists developed a comprehensive synthesis of the best available science about these forests in eastern Oregon and Washington. It calls for a significant change in the culture and emphasis of vegetation management projects in the region. The findings in this synthesis will be applied to forest- and project-level planning and to restoration projects on national forests throughout eastern Oregon and Washington. To date, this is the first synthesis and review that has provided scientific guidance on landscape restoration and practical guidance for diagnosing and designing landscape restoration projects.