Major investments are being made throughout the United States to reduce or mitigate the negative effects of wildland fire on ecological and social values. Managing wildland fire requires an in-depth understanding of complex interactions among the environmental factors and human dimensions that affect the frequency, extent, intensity, and severity of wildfires. In 2010, Congress passed legislation requiring the federal agencies responsible for wildland fire management to work with states, tribes, and other interested publics to develop the National Cohesive Wildland Fire Management Strategy. Scientists from the Forest Service's Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center lead the science and analysis team commissioned to provide analytical support for the development of the Cohesive Strategy. Using a structured risk assessment and decision process, the science team is working with interagency partners to identify and explore alternative courses of action, and to identify and implement options for leveraging resources to improve landscape resiliency, protect human communities, and coordinate wildfire response.