U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) bases across the Southern United States contain some of the most extensive remaining longleaf pine forests. On these bases, a major focus of DoD forest managers, is on restoration and protection of longleaf pine ecosystems for threatened and endangered species and, more recently, carbon sequestration. Together with Auburn University and the University of Florida, the Forest Service's Southern Research Station was awarded a five year grant to develop tools to explicitly quantify and manage longleaf pine forest carbon sequestration. The researchers focused on quantifying below-ground carbon pools and processes, collecting thousands of soil samples for carbon, nitrogen, black carbon (carbon stabilized by fire), texture, root biomass and root nutrient analysis as well as extensive data on tree root biomass, root decomposition and spatial distribution of roots using ground penetrating radar. Fieldwork at Fort Benning (GA), Fort Polk (LA) and Camp Lejeune (NC) was completed this summer and data is being incorporated into management models. The research revealed that longleaf pine root systems continue to store carbon long after trees are harvested due to slow decomposition rates. Furthermore, the research have found that incomplete combustion of biomass in these fire dependent ecosystems can stabilize and sequester carbon in soil for thousands of years.