Conservation efforts are underway across the western U.S. to reduce threats to Greater Sage-grouse and the sagebrush ecosystems on which they depend. The 2010 determination that sage-grouse warrant protection under the Federal Endangered Species Act has accelerated such work, including a multi-agency effort to provide a strategy for conserving sagebrush ecosystems and greater sage-grouse populations. The strategy, provided in a Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station scientific report, focuses on mitigating the threats posed by invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes. Recent research shows that resilience to wildfire and resistance to invasive annual grass differs across sage-grouse habitat. Resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems typically increase as environmental conditions become more favorable for plant growth and reproduction. Also, sage-grouse are more likely to be resilient if they exist in large populations across large landscapes that have continuous sagebrush cover. Thus, the strategy is based on those factors that influence sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses; and, the distribution, relative abundance, and persistence of sage-grouse. A sage-grouse habitat matrix links relative resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems with sage-grouse habitat requirements for landscape cover of sagebrush. The matrix is used to help decision makers assess risks and determine appropriate management strategies at large landscape scales. Focal areas for management are further defined by assessing sage-grouse Priority Areas for Conservation, breeding bird densities, and specific habitat threats. The report concludes with decision tools to help managers determine both the suitability of focal areas for treatment and the most appropriate management treatments. Emphasis is placed on fire operations, fuels management, post-fire rehabilitation, and habitat restoration activities.