Analysis of firefighter entrapments over the past 90 years suggests that advances in understanding of fire, changes in fire management policy, and better firefighter work practices can save lives. Data over the past 30 years suggest that firefighter injury and deaths can be attributed almost uniformly to aircraft accidents, driving accidents, heart attacks, and fire entrapments. The term safety zone was first introduced into the official literature in 1957 in the aftermath of the Inaja Fire that killed 11 firefighters. Since then identification of safety zones has been an integral task for all wildland firefighters. The work that resulted in the current guidelines used officially in the U.S. is based on radiant heating, flat ground and no wind-conditions, which really are not practical for most high intensity fires. This project explored the impact of wind and slope on safety zone size and location. Ultimately, measurements, literature review, and simulations suggest that current guidelines should be modified to account for flame size, slope, and wind. The work has resulted in new understanding about how energy is released from fires and its implications to firefighter safety. In many cases when wind or slope influence fire behavior, the size of the safety zone must be increased significantly. The implications are that in some cases alternate fire management tactics will be needed to keep firefighters safe. Clearly, the answer is not complete and presents a need for additional scientific research.