In North America, interest in uneven-aged management grew in the second-half of the 20th Century after most of the old-growth forests had been harvested. In the uneven-aged management style, trees from all size classes are periodically removed to mimic the patterns of older, unmanaged forests. To investigate this management style, Forest Service scientists set up long-term experiments on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. In the ensuing half-century, almost all of foresters' original beliefs about forest management were partially or wholly invalidated. Findings from the Fernow Experimental Forest illustrate that the original value-laden assumptions were faulty and there is a need to test commonly held beliefs. Long-term forest research data also have many useful benefits: What were originally experiments in silviculture for sustained yield of forest products now yield information about carbon storage, forest restoration, wildlife habitat, rare species, water quality, and forest response to climate change.