Forest Service researchers investigated short cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) as reinforcements for polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films. These CNFs were mechanically isolated from hardwood pulp after enzymatic pretreatment. Various levels of short CNFs were added to an aqueous PVA solution, which were cast into composite films and then hot drawn with various draw ratios at 200 degrees Centigrade (392 degrees Fahrenheit). These cellulose nanomaterials were effective in improving PVA fiber tensile properties (i.e., ultimate strength and elastic modulus). They hope that using cellulose nanomaterials to reinforce polymers, such as polyvinyl alcohol, will lead to stronger and improved products. One potential application is concrete reinforced with polyvinyl alcohol-cellulose nanofibril fibers.