Truffle fungi live amongst the roots of forest plants and form sporocarps below-ground. These under-ground sporocarps depend upon animal mycophagy for spore dispersal but are highly prized for culinary use. Truffles are predominantly mycorrhizal, meaning that they are in a mutually beneficial relationship with tree roots. (The fungus explores substrate for nutrients and water and transfers them to the tree through the root interface; the fungus receives carbohydrates in exchange.) Turkey has an extremely diverse forest community structure with native forest trees from Europe and Asia, but there is no knowledge of truffle occurrence and diversity in Turkish forests. Forest Service scientists mentored Dr. Aziz Turkoglu on truffle biology, ecology, and systematics. His Forest Service mentor then visited the Turkish Ministry of Forests to train Turkish foresters in the assessment and monitoring plots for truffle diversity and also visited 13 different forest regions to share information on the importance of truffles in forest ecosystems and explore opportunities for collecting commercially viable truffle species.