Utilization of small-diameter timber is thought to be hindered by a lack of markets across many hardwood regions in the United States, even though treatment of such material could improve stand conditions and economic return for landowners. However, without involvement of sound forest management in harvest planning, these potential benefits might not be apparent. Forest Service researchers, working with the University of Wisconsin assessed the role of markets and management in a case setting in north-central Wisconsin. Thirty-six harvest sites were visited across three ownership types (managed county-owned forests, managed private forests, and unmanaged private forests) and two locations with different market conditions (county groupings) to characterize the timber being removed. Results indicated that markets were clearly important, with locations closer to pulpwood/biomass-using markets exhibiting smaller post-harvest stump diameters, suggesting that some smaller trees were being removed. However, management was a significant factor as well, with the unmanaged private forests exhibiting the largest post-harvest stump and top diameters, suggesting that smaller trees were not being tended (or utilized) to the same extent as on managed lands. This pattern was evident across market locations. Results from this study found that utilization is enhanced when both markets and forest management are present.