Efforts to conserve regional biodiversity in the face of global climate change, habitat loss, and fragmentation will depend on approaches that consider population processes at large scales. A Forest Service scientist and his research partners demonstrated the power of landscape-based population viability models to inform conservation planning by using these models to evaluate responses of prairie warbler and wood thrush populations in the Central Hardwoods Bird Conservation Region to simulated conservation scenarios. They assessed the relative effectiveness of habitat restoration, afforestation, and increased survival and differed placement and levels of effort for implementing those approaches. Population projections of the two species confirmed the potential for large-scale conservation to sustain regional populations. Relying on randomly placed habitat conservation was ineffective and potentially counterproductive whereas strategic placements resulted in greater populations and viability of prairie warbler and wood thrush. These models offer a valuable advance in conservation planning because they allow an understanding of the effects of local actions on regional growth, which is necessary for translating regional goals into local actions.