The area of planted stands of southern pines is estimated to exceed 50 million acres by 2060. Most are managed primarily for timber and fiber production using rotation lengths of less than three decades. This work has been a tremendous silvicultural success; however, weighing against that success is the associated decline of native fire-adapted ecosystems dominated by longleaf pine and shortleaf pine, as well as the plants and animals adapted to open woodland habitats. Three elements of silvicultural practice will be needed to recover these ecosystems. First, on sites where longleaf or shortleaf pines no longer exist but to which they are adapted, planting will be a primary tool to re-establish those species. Second, the reintroduction of fire in stands and landscapes through prescribed burning will be important but difficult to integrate into operational management. Third, in natural stands with a minor component of either longleaf pine or shortleaf pine, there are silvicultural opportunities to bring those species back to dominance. These opportunities include reproduction cutting or thinning, prescribed burning, and release treatments. Efforts are under way, especially on National Forest System lands, to recover longleaf and shortleaf pine ecosystems.