Every year, more than $1 billion is contributed to the wholesale economy of this country from wild-harvested nontimber forest products. The food and medicine that are sourced from U.S. forests contribute directly to the health, well-being, nutrition, and food security of millions of American citizens -- often people who are economically marginalized. Every region of this country produces important nontimber forest products. Wild-harvested plants and fungi are critical to forest health and resiliency, although the ecological impacts of harvesting and climate change are not thoroughly understood. The National Assessment (GTR-SRS-232) provides a comprehensive synthesis of the science-based knowledge relative to the production, ecology, economics, social and cultural importance, and policy and regulations of nontimber forest products with implications of a changing climate. Many of the plants and fungi valued as nontimber products are cultural icons that are also valuable to people’s cultural identity. If they disappear due to changes in climate, habitat, or lack of management, these cultures will be irreversibly impacted. SRS scientist James Chamberlain led a team of 60 experts from across the country to produce this report that highlights the importance of these products and the knowledge necessary to advance conservation and management of these important natural resources.?