Effective wilderness stewardship relies on understanding the factors such as air pollution, climate change, invasive species, and influence from adjacent land use that impact wilderness characteristics and values.Forest Service scientists collaborated with others to provide scientific papers for a special issue of The Journal of Forestry dedicated to America’s National Wilderness Preservation System. This issue looked at the challenges facing the wilderness agencies: Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Forest Service. It provides peer-reviewed scientific findings on social science, economics, recreation, soundscapes, wildlife, relevancy, and the balancing act managers seek between minimizing interventions while effectively managing these lands. In the past, conference proceedings were the main outlet for such synopses but were often not peer reviewed and had limited distribution. This collaboration of science-based information provides a valuable resource to wilderness managers across the U.S.