Sagebrush ecosystems are among the largest and most threatened ecosystems in North America. Sage-grouse depend on sagebrush ecosystems for successful mating, reproduction and brood-rearing, and their declining populations reflect on the health and availability of sagebrush habitat. Several stressors contribute to population problems: fire, invasive annual grasses such as cheatgrass, drought, climate change, and habitat fragmentation due to human-based activities. Forest Service scientists and managers who work with sagebrush and sage-grouse prepared an assessment that summarizes the agency’s strengths, capabilities, partners, past and current research, and potential future priority research areas for conservation and restoration of sagebrush ecosystems and sage-grouse. They identified four areas of strength: leadership and knowledge development for evaluating links among sage-grouse population ecology, monitoring, and habitat; understanding disturbances and stressors in sagebrush ecosystems; analyzing and designing landscapes to improve habitat connectivity; and developing methods, models, and plant materials to restore sagebrush habitats.