Fuels-reduction treatments are an opportune time to remove trees in poor health and significantly increase the proportion of high vigor trees remaining in the stand after treatment. Having a tool that helps identify clusters of trees in poor health could help prioritize restoration activities the following year and reduce the probability of a landscape-level insect outbreak. The Forest Service’s Western Wildland Environmental Threat Assessment Center (WWETAC) collaborated with the Fremont-Winema National Forest and The Nature Conservancy to develop such a tool. The researchers developed a rapid assessment tool for identifying and prioritizing removal of western yellow pine in poor health. It is based on canopy and whole-tree attributes that can be assessed within a minute on the ground. It is scalable to the landscape-level by correlating ground-based attributes to spectral signatures developed for two tree health classes (poor, and average or above average) from high-resolution remote sensing currently available to managers of national forests. This approach also can be used to assess the effect of different fuels treatments on stand health through time in stands dominated by western yellow pines (ponderosa pine, Jeffrey pine, washoe pine).