There is a pressing need to understand the role of urban green spaces on human health and well-being. Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. Forest Service scientists at the agency’s Southern Research Station have strategically connected this topic to frameworks in ecosystem services, social determinants of health, and environmental justice. The scientists explored relationships between urban green space and the social determinants of health; examined cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and recommended that future research examines links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice. Such insights can support the agency's mission to conserve open space and communicate the benefits of green spaces to researchers and the general public. It can also align Forest Service efforts with mutual public health interests outlined in Healthy People 2020, which is led by the U.S Department of Health and Human Services.