Climate change is increasingly challenging scientists, managers, and policy makers across the globe. While many different elements are involved with changing climates, the combination of persistent, abnormally low precipitation across large areas, accentuated by increased temperatures, probably poses the biggest resource challenge. Drought has been linked to numerous events directly or indirectly responsible for some of the forest losses and ecosystem conversions in the U.S. Although the western U.S. has been most prominently affected in recent decades, all portions of the country are vulnerable to drought, and parts of the more mesic eastern U.S. may be particularly sensitive to the prolonged droughts possible under climate change. The multi-billion dollar timber and recreation industries are the most obviously affected sectors of the economy, but droughts that negatively impact forests also significantly impact other socioeconomic (e.g., water provisioning) and ecological (e.g., endangered species) concerns, making this a critical field of study.