Fuel reduction treatments typically are designed for and applied to individual stands imbedded within larger landscapes, leading to a forest with a mosaic of treated and untreated areas. Studying the effect of treatments on wildlife at the stand level provides valuable information about immediate impacts, but neglects this larger-scale heterogeneity, i.e. the landscape context. Forest Service research results illustrate this important stand-landscape interaction and its implications for understanding wildlife responses to fuel-reduction treatments. Within treatment units, thinning had a negative effect on the density of northern flying squirrels; however, patterns of density across a larger spatial scale showed that northern flying squirrels shifted their distribution within the landscape out of thinned units and toward unharvested areas that retained greater canopy closure.